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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-37429
EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware   20-2705720
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1111 Expedia Group Way W.
Seattle, WA 98119
(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)
(206) 481-7200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
__________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes         No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes  ☐    No  
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.0001 par value EXPE The Nasdaq Global Select Market
The number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock as of July 22, 2022 was:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share   152,035,150  shares
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share   5,523,452  shares


Expedia Group, Inc.
Form 10-Q
For the Quarter Ended June 30, 2022
Contents
 
Part I
Item 1
2
3
4
5
7
8
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Part II
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 2
Item 6



Part I. Item 1. Consolidated Financial Statements
EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
  Three months ended
June 30,
Six months ended
June 30,
  2022 2021 2022 2021
Revenue $ 3,181  $ 2,111  $ 5,430  $ 3,357 
Costs and expenses:
        Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below) (1)
419  374  790  685 
        Selling and marketing (1)
1,716  1,199  3,055  1,863 
        Technology and content (1)
284  276  554  523 
        General and administrative (1)
189  184  375  340 
Depreciation and amortization 197  205  394  414 
Impairment of intangible assets 29  —  29  — 
Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other (8) 23  (9)
Restructuring and related reorganization charges —  13  —  42 
Operating income (loss) 345  (132) 210  (501)
Other income (expense):
Interest income 10  13 
Interest expense (73) (83) (154) (181)
Loss on debt extinguishment (24) —  (24) (280)
Other, net (385) (10) (380) (15)
Total other expense, net (472) (92) (545) (473)
Loss before income taxes (127) (224) (335) (974)
Provision for income taxes (58) 47  27  216 
Net loss (185) (177) (308) (758)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests — 
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. (185) (172) (307) (750)
Preferred stock dividend —  (22) —  (50)
Loss on redemption of preferred stock —  (107) —  (107)
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. common stockholders $ (185) $ (301) $ (307) $ (907)
Loss per share attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. available to common stockholders
Basic $ (1.17) $ (2.02) $ (1.96) $ (6.16)
Diluted (1.17) (2.02) (1.96) (6.16)
Shares used in computing earnings (loss) per share (000's):
Basic 157,290  149,093  156,831  147,148 
Diluted 157,290  149,093  156,831  147,148 
_______
(1) Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
Cost of revenue $ $ $ $ 11 
Selling and marketing 17  32  32  49 
Technology and content 27  32  54  59 
General and administrative 46  50  91  84 

See accompanying notes.
2

EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
 
  Three months ended
June 30,
Six months ended
June 30,
  2022 2021 2022 2021
Net loss $ (185) $ (177) $ (308) $ (758)
Currency translation adjustments, net of tax(1)
(99) 19  (116) (18)
Comprehensive loss (284) (158) (424) (776)
Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests (20) (26) (18)
Less: Preferred stock dividend —  22  —  50 
Less: Loss on redemption of preferred stock —  107  —  107 
Comprehensive loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. common stockholders $ (264) $ (288) $ (398) $ (915)
 
(1)Currency translation adjustments include tax expense of $6 million and $9 million associated with net investment hedges for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and tax benefit of $3 million and tax expense of $6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021.


See accompanying notes.
3

EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except number of shares, which are reflected in thousands, and par value)
June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
  (Unaudited)  
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 5,568  $ 4,111 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents 2,756  1,694 
Short-term investments 26  200 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $62 and $65
2,173  1,264 
Income taxes receivable 105  85 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 1,158  827 
Total current assets 11,786  8,181 
Property and equipment, net 2,163  2,180 
Operating lease right-of-use assets 378  407 
Long-term investments and other assets 1,151  1,450 
Deferred income taxes 825  766 
Intangible assets, net 1,306  1,393 
Goodwill 7,135  7,171 
TOTAL ASSETS $ 24,744  $ 21,548 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable, merchant $ 1,548  $ 1,333 
Accounts payable, other 1,178  688 
Deferred merchant bookings 10,041  5,688 
Deferred revenue 173  166 
Income taxes payable 36  16 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities 861  824 
Current maturities of long-term debt —  735 
Total current liabilities 13,837  9,450 
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities 6,727  7,715 
Deferred income taxes 45  58 
Operating lease liabilities 334  360 
Other long-term liabilities 420  413 
Commitments and contingencies
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock: $.0001 par value; Authorized shares: 1,600,000
—  — 
Shares issued: 276,967 and 274,661; Shares outstanding: 152,024 and 150,125
Class B common stock: $.0001 par value; Authorized shares: 400,000
—  — 
Shares issued: 12,800 and 12,800; Shares outstanding: 5,523 and 5,523
Additional paid-in capital 14,549  14,229 
Treasury stock - Common stock and Class B, at cost; Shares 132,220 and 131,813
(10,331) (10,262)
Retained earnings (deficit) (2,068) (1,761)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (240) (149)
Total Expedia Group, Inc. stockholders’ equity 1,910  2,057 
Non-redeemable non-controlling interests 1,471  1,495 
Total stockholders’ equity 3,381  3,552 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY $ 24,744  $ 21,548 

See accompanying notes.
4

EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In millions, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
Three months ended June 30, 2021 Common stock Class B
common stock
Additional
paid-in
capital
Treasury stock - Common and Class B Retained
earnings
(deficit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Non-redeemable
non-controlling
interest
Total
  Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of March 31, 2021 265,207,012  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 13,919  131,141,343  $ (10,152) $ (2,359) $ (199) $ 1,479  $ 2,688 
Net loss (172) (5) (177)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes 13  19 
Payment of preferred dividends (declared at $47.11 per share)
(50) (50)
Proceeds from exercise of equity instruments and employee stock purchase plans 1,561,799  —  110  110 
Exercise of common stock warrants 2,470,221  —  —  — 
Loss on redemption of preferred stock (107) (107)
Treasury stock activity related to vesting of equity instruments 177,075  (30) (30)
Adjustment to the fair value of redeemable non-controlling interests (11) (11)
Other changes in ownership of non-controlling interests — 
Stock-based compensation expense 134  134 
Balance as of June 30, 2021 269,239,032  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 13,995  131,318,418  $ (10,182) $ (2,531) $ (186) $ 1,486  $ 2,582 

Six months ended June 30, 2021 Common stock Class B
common stock
Additional
paid-in
capital
Treasury stock - Common and Class B Retained
earnings
(deficit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Non-redeemable
non-controlling
interest
Total
  Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2020 261,563,912  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 13,566  130,766,537  $ (10,097) $ (1,781) $ (178) $ 1,494  $ 3,004 
Net loss (750) (8) (758)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes (8) (10) (18)
Payment of preferred dividends (declared at $47.11 per share)
(50) (50)
Proceeds from exercise of equity instruments and employee stock purchase plans 5,204,899  —  379  379 
Exercise of common stock warrants 2,470,221  —  —  — 
Loss on redemption of preferred stock (107) (107)
Withholding taxes for stock options (7) (7)
Treasury stock activity related to vesting of equity instruments 551,881  (85) (85)
Adjustment to the fair value of redeemable non-controlling interests (11) (11)
Other changes in ownership of non-controlling interests —  10  10 
Stock-based compensation expense 225  225 
Balance as of June 30, 2021 269,239,032  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 13,995  131,318,418  $ (10,182) $ (2,531) $ (186) $ 1,486  $ 2,582 





5


EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In millions, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three months ended June 30, 2022 Common stock Class B
common stock
Additional
paid-in
capital
Treasury stock - Common and Class B Retained
earnings
(deficit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Non-redeemable
non-controlling
interest
Total
  Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of March 31, 2022 276,329,170  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 14,431  132,051,439  $ (10,309) $ (1,883) $ (161) $ 1,489  $ 3,567 
Net income (loss) (185) —  (185)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes (79) (20) (99)
Proceeds from exercise of equity instruments and employee stock purchase plans 637,923  —  13  13 
Treasury stock activity related to vesting of equity instruments 168,251  (22) (22)
Other changes in ownership of non-controlling interests
Stock-based compensation expense 104  104 
Balance as of June 30, 2022 276,967,093  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 14,549  132,219,690  $ (10,331) $ (2,068) $ (240) $ 1,471  $ 3,381 

Six months ended June 30, 2022 Common stock Class B
common stock
Additional
paid-in
capital
Treasury stock - Common and Class B Retained
earnings
(deficit)
Accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
Non-redeemable
non-controlling
interest
Total
  Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2021 274,660,725  —  12,799,999  —  14,229  131,812,764  (10,262) (1,761) (149) 1,495  $ 3,552 
Net income (loss) (307) (1) (308)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of taxes (91) (25) (116)
Proceeds from exercise of equity instruments and employee stock purchase plans 2,306,368  —  114  114 
Treasury stock activity related to vesting of equity instruments 406,926  (69) (69)
Other changes in ownership of non-controlling interests
Stock-based compensation expense 201  201 
Balance as of June 30, 2022 276,967,093  $ —  12,799,999  $ —  $ 14,549  132,219,690  $ (10,331) $ (2,068) $ (240) $ 1,471  $ 3,381 
See accompanying notes.
6

EXPEDIA GROUP, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
  Six months ended
June 30,
  2022 2021
Operating activities:
Net loss $ (308) $ (758)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation of property and equipment, including internal-use software and website development 351  361 
Amortization of intangible assets 43  53 
Impairment of intangible assets 29  — 
Amortization of stock-based compensation 183  203 
Deferred income taxes (83) (241)
Foreign exchange loss on cash, restricted cash and short-term investments, net 109  20 
Realized loss on foreign currency forwards 75  12 
(Gain) loss on minority equity investments, net 352  (4)
Loss on debt extinguishment 24  280 
Other, net (19)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable (921) (729)
Prepaid expenses and other assets (330) (614)
Accounts payable, merchant 214  556 
Accounts payable, other, accrued expenses and other liabilities 539  353 
Tax payable/receivable, net (1)
Deferred merchant bookings 4,354  5,184 
Deferred revenue — 
Net cash provided by operating activities 4,619  4,684 
Investing activities:
Capital expenditures, including internal-use software and website development (315) (351)
Purchases of investments (60) (1)
Sales and maturities of investments 200  12 
Proceeds from initial exchange of cross-currency interest rate swaps 337  — 
Payments for initial exchange of cross-currency interest rate swaps (337) — 
Other, net (73) (73)
Net cash used in investing activities (248) (413)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt, net of issuance costs —  1,964 
Payment of long-term debt (1,724) (1,706)
Debt extinguishment costs (20) (258)
Redemption of preferred stock —  (618)
Purchases of treasury stock (69) (85)
Payment of preferred stock dividends —  (50)
Proceeds from exercise of equity awards and employee stock purchase plan 114  379 
Other, net 12  (4)
Net cash used in financing activities (1,687) (378)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents (165) (26)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents 2,519  3,867 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period 5,805  4,138 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents at end of period $ 8,324  $ 8,005 
Supplemental cash flow information
Cash paid for interest $ 167  $ 192 
Income tax payments, net 56  16 
See accompanying notes.
7

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
June 30, 2022
(Unaudited)
Note 1 – Basis of Presentation
Description of Business
Expedia Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries provide travel products and services to leisure and corporate travelers in the United States and abroad as well as various media and advertising offerings to travel and non-travel advertisers. These travel products and services are offered through a diversified portfolio of brands including: Brand Expedia®, Hotels.com®, Expedia® Partner Solutions, Vrbo®, trivago®, Orbitz®, Travelocity®, Hotwire®, Wotif®, ebookers®, CheapTickets®, Expedia Group™ Media Solutions, CarRentals.com™, Expedia CruisesTM and Traveldoo®. In addition, many of these brands have related international points of sale. We refer to Expedia Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries collectively as “Expedia Group,” the “Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” in these consolidated financial statements.
COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic, and measures to contain the virus, including government travel restrictions and quarantine orders, have had a significant negative impact on the global travel industry and materially and negatively impacted our business, financial results and financial condition. Since the first quarter of 2020, COVID-19 has negatively impacted consumer sentiment and consumer’s ability to travel, and many of our supply partners, particularly airlines and hotels, continue to operate at reduced but improving service levels in 2022. More recently, travel trends have continued to improve. Overall, the full duration and total impact of COVID-19 remains uncertain and it is difficult to predict how the recovery will unfold for the travel industry and, in particular, our business, going forward.
Basis of Presentation
These accompanying financial statements present our results of operations, financial position and cash flows on a consolidated basis. The unaudited consolidated financial statements include Expedia Group, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiaries, and entities we control, or in which we have a variable interest and are the primary beneficiary of expected cash profits or losses. We record our investments in entities that we do not control, but over which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, using the equity method or at fair value. We have eliminated significant intercompany transactions and accounts.
We have prepared the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial reporting. We have included all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the results of the interim period. These adjustments consist of normal recurring items. Our interim unaudited consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for any other interim period or for the full year. These interim unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). trivago is a separately listed company on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and, therefore is subject to its own reporting and filing requirements, which could result in possible differences that are not expected to be material to Expedia Group.
Accounting Estimates
We use estimates and assumptions in the preparation of our interim unaudited consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Our estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of our interim unaudited consolidated financial statements. These estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amount of net income or loss during any period. Our actual financial results could differ significantly from these estimates. The significant estimates underlying our interim unaudited consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition; recoverability of current and long-lived assets, intangible assets and goodwill; income and transactional taxes, such as potential settlements related to occupancy and excise taxes; loss contingencies; deferred loyalty rewards; stock-based compensation; accounting for derivative instruments and provisions for credit losses, customer refunds and chargebacks.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created and may continue to create significant uncertainty in macroeconomic conditions, which may cause further business disruptions and adversely impact our results of operations. As a result, many of our estimates and assumptions required increased judgment and carry a higher degree of variability and volatility. As events continue to evolve and additional information becomes available, our estimates may change materially in future periods.
8

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Reclassifications
We have reclassified prior period financial statements to conform to the current period presentation.
Seasonality
We generally experience seasonal fluctuations in the demand for our travel services. For example, traditional leisure travel bookings are generally the highest in the first three quarters as travelers plan and book their spring, summer and winter holiday travel. The number of bookings typically decreases in the fourth quarter. Since revenue for most of our travel services, including merchant and agency hotel, is recognized as the travel takes place rather than when it is booked, revenue typically lags bookings by several weeks for our hotel business and can be several months or more for our alternative accommodations business. Historically, Vrbo has seen seasonally stronger bookings in the first quarter of the year, with the relevant stays occurring during the peak summer travel months. The seasonal revenue impact is exacerbated with respect to income by the nature of our variable cost of revenue and direct sales and marketing costs, which we typically realize in closer alignment to booking volumes, and the more stable nature of our fixed costs. Furthermore, operating profits for our primary advertising business, trivago, have typically been experienced in the second half of the year, particularly the fourth quarter, as selling and marketing costs offset revenue in the first half of the year as we typically increase marketing during the busy booking period for spring, summer and winter holiday travel. As a result on a consolidated basis, revenue and income are typically the lowest in the first quarter and highest in the third quarter. The growth of our international operations, advertising business or a change in our product mix, including the growth of Vrbo, may influence the typical trend of the seasonality in the future.
Impacts from COVID-19 disrupted our typical seasonal pattern for bookings, revenue, profit and cash flows during 2020 and 2021. Significantly higher cancellations and reduced booking volumes, particularly in the first half of 2020, resulted in material operating losses and negative cash flow. Booking and travel trends improved in the second half of 2020, in 2021, and in the first half of 2022. This has resulted in working capital benefits and positive cash flow more akin to typical historical trends. It remains difficult to forecast the seasonality for the upcoming quarters, given the uncertainty related to COVID-19 and the shape and timing of any sustained recovery.
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Recent Adopted Accounting Policies
In June 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance related to fair value measurement of equity securities, which clarifies the fair value measurement of an equity security that is subject to a contractual sale restriction and requires specific disclosures related to such an equity security. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, with early adoption permitted. We elected to early adopt the new guidance in the second quarter of 2022 on a prospective basis. One of our minority equity investments is accounted for in accordance with this new guidance. See Note 3 – Fair Value Measurements for additional information.
Recent Accounting Policies Not Yet Adopted
In October 2021, the FASB issued new guidance relate to recognizing and measuring contract assets and contract liabilities from contracts with customers acquired in a business combination. The new guidance will require acquiring entities to apply Topic 606 to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in a business combination as compared to current GAAP where an acquirer generally recognizes such items at fair value on the acquisition date. The new guidance is effective on a prospective basis for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect it will have a material impact, if any, on our consolidated financial statements.
Significant Accounting Policies
Below are the significant accounting policies with interim disclosure requirements. For a comprehensive description of our accounting policies, refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
9

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Revenue
Prepaid Merchant Bookings. We classify payments made to suppliers in advance of Vrbo performance obligations as prepaid merchant bookings included within prepaid and other current assets. Prepaid merchant bookings was $839 million as of June 30, 2022 and $591 million as of December 31, 2021.
Deferred Merchant Bookings. We classify cash payments received in advance of our performance obligations as deferred merchant bookings. At December 31, 2021, $4.9 billion of advance cash payments was reported within deferred merchant bookings, $3.6 billion of which was recognized resulting in $563 million of revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2022. At June 30, 2022, the related balance was $9.2 billion.
At December 31, 2021, $798 million of deferred loyalty rewards was reported within deferred merchant bookings, $343 million of which was recognized within revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2022. At June 30, 2022, the related balance was $856 million.
Deferred Revenue. At December 31, 2021, $166 million was recorded as deferred revenue, $94 million of which was recognized as revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2022. At June 30, 2022, the related balance was $173 million.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions. We have used the portfolio approach to account for our loyalty points as the rewards programs share similar characteristics within each program in relation to the value provided to the traveler and their breakage patterns. Using this portfolio approach is not expected to differ materially from applying the guidance to individual contracts. However, we will continue to assess and refine, if necessary, how a portfolio within each rewards program is defined.
We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Cash, Restricted Cash, and Cash Equivalents
Our cash and cash equivalents include cash and liquid financial instruments, including U.S. treasury securities, money market funds and term deposit investments, with maturities of three months or less when purchased. Restricted cash includes cash and cash equivalents that is restricted through legal contracts, regulations or our intention to use the cash for a specific purpose. Our restricted cash relates to certain traveler deposits, primarily for Vrbo, and to a lesser extent collateral for office leases. The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported in our consolidated balance sheets to the total amount presented in our consolidated statements of cash flows:
June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
(in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents $ 5,568  $ 4,111 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents 2,756  1,694 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents in the consolidated statements of cash flows $ 8,324  $ 5,805 
Accounts Receivable and Allowances
Accounts receivable are generally due within thirty days and are recorded net of an allowance for expected uncollectible amounts. We consider accounts outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms as past due. The risk characteristics we generally review when analyzing our accounts receivable pools primarily include the type of receivable (for example, credit card vs hotel collect), collection terms and historical or expected credit loss patterns. For each pool, we make estimates of expected credit losses for our allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due, previous loss history continually updated for new collections data, the credit quality of our customers, current economic conditions, reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions and other factors that may affect our ability to collect from customers. The provision for estimated credit losses is recorded as cost of revenue in our consolidated statements of operations. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, we recorded approximately $8 million of incremental allowance for expected uncollectible accounts, offset by $11 million of write-offs. Actual future bad debt could differ materially from this estimate resulting from changes in our assumptions of the duration and severity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
10

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Note 3 – Fair Value Measurements
Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of June 30, 2022 are classified using the fair value hierarchy in the table below:
Total Level 1 Level 2
  (In millions)
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds $ $ $ — 
Term deposits 92  —  92 
Derivatives:
Cross-currency interest rate swaps 24  —  24 
Investments:
Term deposits 53  —  53 
Equity investments 558  78  480 
Total assets $ 731  $ 82  $ 649 
Liabilities
Derivatives:
Foreign currency forward contracts $ $ —  $
Financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2021 are classified using the fair value hierarchy in the table below:
Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
  (In millions)
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds $ 47  $ 47  $ —  $ — 
Mutual funds 23  23  —  — 
Term deposits 153  —  153  — 
Derivatives:
Foreign currency forward contracts —  — 
Investments:
Term deposits 200  —  200  — 
Equity investments 909  94  —  815 
Total assets $ 1,335  $ 164  $ 356  $ 815 
We classify our cash equivalents and investments within Level 1 and Level 2 as we value our cash equivalents and investments using quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs. Valuation of the foreign currency forward contracts is based on foreign currency exchange rates in active markets, a Level 2 input. Valuation of the cross-currency interest rate swaps is based on foreign currency exchange rates and the current interest rate curve, Level 2 inputs.
We hold term deposit investments with financial institutions. Term deposits with original maturities of less than three months are classified as cash equivalents, those with remaining maturities of less than one year are classified within short-term investments and those with remaining maturities of greater than one year are classified within long-term investments and other assets.
As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, our cash and cash equivalents consisted primarily of term deposits, money market funds and mutual funds with maturities of three months or less and bank account balances.
We use foreign currency forward contracts to economically hedge certain merchant revenue exposures, foreign denominated liabilities related to certain of our loyalty programs and our other foreign currency-denominated operating liabilities. Our goal in managing our foreign exchange risk is to reduce, to the extent practicable, our potential exposure to the changes that exchange rates might have on our earnings, cash flows and financial position. Our foreign currency forward
11

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

contracts are typically short-term and, as they do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment, we classify the changes in their fair value in other, net. As of June 30, 2022, we were party to outstanding forward contracts hedging our liability exposures with a total net notional value of $2.7 billion. We had a net forward liability of $6 million ($25 million gross liability) as of June 30, 2022 recorded in accrued expenses and other current liabilities and a net forward asset of $3 million ($12 million gross asset) as of December 31, 2021 recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets. We recorded $49 million and $43 million in net losses from foreign currency forward contracts during the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 as well as $84 million and $24 million in net losses from foreign currency forward contracts during the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
On March 2, 2022, we entered into two fixed-to-fixed cross-currency interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional amount of €300 million. The swaps were designated as net investment hedges of Euro assets with the objective to protect the U.S. dollar value of our net investments in the Euro foreign operations due to movements in foreign currency. Hedge effectiveness is assessed each quarter based on the net investment in the foreign subsidiaries designated as the hedged item and the changes in the fair value of designated interest rate swaps based on spot rates. For hedges that meet the effectiveness requirements, changes in fair value are recorded as accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) within the foreign currency translation adjustment. Amounts excluded from hedge effectiveness at inception are recognized as interest accrues within interest expense. The maturity date of both swaps is February 2026, whereby, we will receive U.S. dollars from and pay Euros to the contract counterparties. During the term of each contract, we receive interest payments in U.S. dollars at a fixed rate of 5% and make interest payments in Euros at an average fixed rate of 3.38% based on a notional amount and fixed interest rates determined at contract inception. The fair value of the cross-currency interest rate swaps was a $24 million asset as of June 30, 2022 recorded in long-term investments and other assets, and the gain recognized in interest expense during the six months ended June 30, 2022 was $2 million.
Our equity investments include our marketable equity investment in Despegar, a publicly traded company, which is included in long-term investments and other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. During the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, we recognized a loss of approximately $16 million and a gain of approximately $4 million within other, net in our consolidated statements of operations related to the fair value changes of this equity investment.
In connection with our disposition of Egencia (our former corporate travel arm) in November 2021, we became an indirect holder of an approximately 19% interest in GBT JerseyCo Ltd. (“GBT”), doing business as American Express Global Business Travel, with an initial fair value of $815 million. As we elected the fair value option for our investment, during the first quarter of 2022, we recorded a downward adjustment of approximately $2 million based on an updated valuation. In May 2022, GBT completed a deSPAC business combination with Apollo Strategic Growth Capital. This combination resulted in a newly publicly traded company, Global Business Travel Group, Inc (“GBTG”), which together with GBT’s pre-combination shareholders owned all of GBT. Post combination, we had a 16.5% ownership interest in GBT and a commensurate voting interest in GBTG. Our shares in GBT are exchangeable on a 1:1 basis for GBTG shares, and as such, we valued our investment based on the GBTG’s share price at the end of the second quarter of 2022, which resulted in a loss of $333 million within other, net in our consolidated statements of operations. We are subject to a lockup period on sales of these equity securities until November 23, 2022.
The following table reconciles, in millions, the beginning and ending balances of our Level 3 assets. With the May 2022 business combination of GBTG, we reclassified our equity investment from a Level 3 asset to a Level 2 asset.
Balance as of December 31, 2021 $ 815 
Upward (downward) adjustment to valuation (335)
Reclassification to Level 2 (480)
Balance as of June 30, 2022 $ — 
Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-recurring Basis
Our non-financial assets, such as goodwill, intangible assets and property and equipment, as well as equity method investments for which we have not elected the fair value option, are adjusted to fair value when an impairment charge is recognized or the underlying investment is sold. Such fair value measurements are based predominately on Level 3 inputs. We measure our minority investments that do not have readily determinable fair values at cost less impairment, adjusted by observable price changes with changes recorded within other, net on our consolidated statements of operations.
Intangible Assets. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we recognized intangible impairment charges of $29 million related to an indefinite-lived trade name within our trivago segment that resulted from changes in the weighted average cost of capital. The indefinite-lived trade name asset, classified as Level 3 measurements, was valued using the relief-from-royalty method, which includes unobservable inputs, including projected revenues, royalty rates and weighted average
12

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

cost of capital. As noted above, trivago is subject to its own reporting and filing requirements and, therefore, assesses goodwill at a lower level, which could result in possible differences in the ultimate amount or timing of impairments recognized.
Minority Investments without Readily Determinable Fair Values. As of both June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the carrying values of our minority investments without readily determinable fair values totaled $330 million. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, we had no material gains or losses recognized related to these minority investments. As of June 30, 2022, total cumulative adjustments made to the initial cost basis of these investments included $2 million in unrealized upward adjustments and $105 million in unrealized downward adjustments (including impairments).
Note 4 – Debt
The following table sets forth our outstanding debt:
June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
  (In millions)
2.5% (€650 million) senior notes due 2022
$ —  $ 735 
3.6% senior notes due 2023
—  497 
4.5% senior notes due 2024
—  498 
6.25% senior notes due 2025
1,035  1,033 
5.0% senior notes due 2026
746  745 
0% convertible senior notes due 2026
987  986 
4.625% senior notes due 2027
745  744 
3.8% senior notes due 2028
994  994 
3.25% senior notes due 2030
1,236  1,235 
2.95% senior notes due 2031
984  983 
Long-term debt(1)
6,727  8,450 
Current maturities of long-term debt —  (735)
Long-term debt, excluding current maturities $ 6,727  $ 7,715 
_______________
(1)Net of applicable discounts and debt issuance costs.
Redemption of Senior Notes
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we early redeemed all of our €650 million registered senior unsecured notes that were due June 2022 and bore interest at 2.5% (the “2.5% Notes”). The redemption price for the 2.5% Notes was 100% of the aggregate principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon through the redemption date.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we early redeemed all of our $500 million registered senior unsecured notes that were due December 2023 and bore interest at 3.6% (the “3.6% Notes”), and all of our $500 million registered senior unsecured notes that were due August 2024 and bore interest at 4.5% (the “4.5% Notes”), which resulted in the recognition of a loss on debt extinguishment of $24 million during the period. This loss primarily reflected the payment of “make-whole” premiums of $20 million as well as the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs and discounts of $4 million. The cash payments related to the debt extinguishment were classified as cash outflows from financing activities on the consolidated statement of cash flows and were $20 million during the six months ended June 30, 2022, which reflected the $24 million loss on debt extinguishment adjusted for the non-cash write-off of debt issuance costs and notes discount of $4 million. In addition, we paid accrued and unpaid interest on the 3.6% Notes and 4.5% Notes up to their dates of redemption.
Long-term Debt
Additional information about our $1 billion aggregate principal amount of unsecured 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “Convertible Notes”) and our other outstanding senior notes (collectively the “Senior Notes”), see Note 8 Debt of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2021 Form 10-K.
All of our outstanding Senior Notes are senior unsecured obligations issued by Expedia Group and guaranteed by certain domestic Expedia Group subsidiaries. The Senior Notes rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of Expedia Group and the guarantor subsidiaries. In addition, the Senior Notes include covenants that limit our ability to (i) create certain liens, (ii) enter into sale/leaseback transactions and (iii) merge or consolidate with or into another entity or transfer substantially all of our assets. The Senior Notes are redeemable in whole or in part, at the option of the holders thereof, upon the occurrence of certain change of control triggering events at a purchase price in cash equal to 101% of the principal plus accrued and unpaid interest. Accrued interest related to the Senior Notes was $76 million and $98 million as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
13

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Estimated Fair Value. The total estimated fair value of our Senior Notes was approximately $5.3 billion and $8.0 billion as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. Additionally, the estimated fair value of the Convertible Notes was $898 million and $1.2 billion as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The fair value was determined based on quoted market prices in less active markets and is categorized according as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Credit Facility
As of June 30, 2022, Expedia Group maintained a $2.5 billion revolving credit facility that matures in April 2027. As of June 30, 2022, we had no revolving credit facility borrowings outstanding. Loans under the revolving credit facility bear interest at a rate equal to an index rate plus a margin (a) in the case of term benchmark loans, ranging from 1.00% to 1.75% per annum, depending on Expedia Group’s credit ratings, and (b) in the case of base rate loans, ranging from 0.00% to 0.75% per annum, depending on Expedia Group’s credit ratings. A fee is payable quarterly in respect of undrawn commitments under the revolving credit facility at a rate ranging from 0.10% to 0.25% per annum, depending on Expedia Group’s credit ratings. The terms of the revolving credit facility require Expedia Group to not exceed a specified maximum consolidated leverage ratio as of the end of each fiscal quarter.
The revolving credit facility has a $120 million letter of credit (“LOC”) sublimit, and the amount of LOCs issued under the facility reduced the credit amount available. As of June 30, 2022, there was $36 million of outstanding stand-by LOCs issued under the facility.
The current facility was entered into in April 2022 and in connection Expedia Group terminated all outstanding commitments and repaid all outstanding obligations under our prior $1.145 billion revolving credit facility and $855 million foreign credit facility. As of December 31, 2021, we had no borrowings outstanding under either prior facility and $14 million of outstanding stand-by LOCs issued under the $1.145 billion revolving facility.
Note 5 – Capital Stock
Treasury Stock
As of June 30, 2022, the Company’s treasury stock was comprised of approximately 124.9 million common stock and 7.3 million Class B shares. As of December 31, 2021, the Company’s treasury stock was comprised of approximately 124.5 million shares of common stock and 7.3 million Class B shares.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
The balance of AOCI as of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 was comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments. These translation adjustments include foreign currency transaction losses at June 30, 2022 of $7 million ($10 million before tax) and $15 million ($22 million before tax) at December 31, 2021 associated with our Euro-denominated 2.5% Notes, as well as foreign currency transaction gains at June 30, 2022 of $18 million ($24 million before tax) associated with our cross-currency interest rate swaps as described in Note 3 – Fair Value Measurements. Until their redemption in March 2022, the aggregate principal value of the 2.5% Notes was designated as a hedge of our net investment in certain Euro-functional currency subsidiaries. In March 2022, we redeemed the 2.5% Notes and terminated the related hedging relationship. The currency translation adjustment amounts associated with the net investment hedge of the 2.5% Notes will remain in AOCI until realized upon a full or partial sale or liquidation of the applicable Euro-functional currency subsidiaries.
Note 6 – Earnings (Loss) Per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated using our weighted-average outstanding common shares. The earnings per share amounts are the same for common stock and Class B common stock because the holders of each class are legally entitled to equal per share distributions whether through dividends or in liquidation.
Diluted earnings per share is calculated using our weighted-average outstanding common shares including the dilutive effect of stock awards and common stock warrants as determined under the treasury stock method and of our Convertible Notes using the if-converted method. In periods when we recognize a net loss, we exclude the impact of outstanding stock awards, common stock warrants and the potential share settlement impact related to our Convertible Notes from the diluted loss per share calculation as their inclusion would have an antidilutive effect. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, approximately 11 million of outstanding stock awards and approximately 4 million shares related to the potential share settlement impact related to our Convertible Notes have been excluded from the calculations of diluted earnings per share attributable to common stockholders because their effect would have been antidilutive. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, approximately 19 million of outstanding stock awards and common stock warrants and approximately 4 million shares related to the potential share settlement impact related to our Convertible Notes were excluded.
14

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Note 7 – Income Taxes
We determine our provision for income taxes for interim periods using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate. We record any changes affecting the estimated annual effective tax rate in the interim period in which the change occurs, including discrete items.
For the three months ended June 30, 2022, the effective tax rate was a 46.2% expense on pre-tax loss, compared to a 21.0% benefit on pre-tax loss for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The change in the effective tax rate was primarily due to nondeductible mark-to-market adjustments to our minority equity investments as well as other discrete items.
For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the effective tax rate was an 8.0% benefit on pre-tax loss, compared to a 22.1% benefit on pre-tax loss for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The change in the effective tax rate was primarily due to nondeductible mark-to-market adjustments to our minority equity investments as well as other discrete items.
We are subject to taxation in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Our income tax filings are regularly examined by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. During the fourth quarter of 2019, the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) issued final adjustments related to transfer pricing with our foreign subsidiaries for our 2011 to 2013 tax years. The proposed adjustments would increase our U.S. taxable income by $696 million, which would result in federal tax of approximately $244 million, subject to interest. We do not agree with the position of the IRS. We filed a protest with the IRS for our 2011 to 2013 tax years and Appeals returned the case to Exam for further review. We are also under examination by the IRS for our 2014 to 2020 tax years. Subsequent years remain open to examination by the IRS. We do not anticipate a significant impact to our gross unrecognized tax benefits within the next 12 months related to these years.
Note 8 – Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of business, we are a party to various lawsuits. Management does not expect these lawsuits to have a material impact on the liquidity, results of operations, or financial condition of Expedia Group. We also evaluate other potential contingent matters, including value-added tax, excise tax, sales tax, transient occupancy or accommodation tax and similar matters. We do not believe that the aggregate amount of liability that could be reasonably possible with respect to these matters would have a material adverse effect on our financial results; however, litigation is inherently uncertain and the actual losses incurred in the event that our legal proceedings were to result in unfavorable outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.
Litigation Relating to Occupancy Taxes. One hundred three lawsuits have been filed by or against cities, counties and states involving hotel occupancy and other taxes. Eight lawsuits are currently active. These lawsuits are in various stages and we continue to defend against the claims made in them vigorously. With respect to the principal claims in these matters, we believe that the statutes or ordinances at issue do not apply to us or the services we provide and, therefore, that we do not owe the taxes that are claimed to be owed. We believe that the statutes or ordinances at issue generally impose occupancy and other taxes on entities that own, operate or control hotels (or similar businesses) or furnish or provide hotel rooms or similar accommodations. To date, forty-nine of these lawsuits have been dismissed. Some of these dismissals have been without prejudice and, generally, allow the governmental entity or entities to seek administrative remedies prior to pursuing further litigation. Thirty-four dismissals were based on a finding that we and the other defendants were not subject to the local tax ordinance or that the local government lacked standing to pursue its claims. As a result of this litigation and other attempts by certain jurisdictions to levy such taxes, we have established a reserve for the potential settlement of issues related to hotel occupancy and other taxes, consistent with applicable accounting principles and in light of all current facts and circumstances, in the amount of $50 million as of both June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. Our settlement reserve is based on our best estimate of probable losses and the ultimate resolution of these contingencies may be greater or less than the liabilities recorded. An estimate for a reasonably possible loss or range of loss in excess of the amount reserved cannot be made. Changes to the settlement reserve are included within legal reserves, occupancy tax and other in the consolidated statements of operations.
Pay-to-Play. Certain jurisdictions may assert that we are required to pay any assessed taxes prior to being allowed to contest or litigate the applicability of the ordinances. This prepayment of contested taxes is referred to as “pay-to-play.” Payment of these amounts is not an admission that we believe we are subject to such taxes and, even when such payments are made, we continue to defend our position vigorously. If we prevail in the litigation, for which a pay-to-play payment was made, the jurisdiction collecting the payment will be required to repay such amounts and also may be required to pay interest.
We are in various stages of inquiry or audit with various tax authorities, some of which, including in the City of Los Angeles regarding hotel occupancy taxes, may impose a pay-to-play requirement to challenge an adverse inquiry or audit result in court.
15

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

Matters Relating to International VAT. We are in various stages of inquiry or audit in multiple European Union jurisdictions regarding the application of VAT to our European Union related transactions. While we believe we comply with applicable VAT laws, rules and regulations in the relevant jurisdictions, the tax authorities may determine that we owe additional taxes. In certain jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom, we may be required to “pay-to-play” any VAT assessment prior to contesting its validity. While we believe that we will be successful based on the merits of our positions with regard to audits in pay-to-play jurisdictions, it is nevertheless reasonably possible that we could be required to pay any assessed amounts in order to contest or litigate the applicability of any assessments and an estimate for a reasonably possible amount of any such payments cannot be made.
Competition and Consumer Matters. On August 23, 2018, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, or "ACCC", instituted proceedings in the Australian Federal Court against trivago. The ACCC alleged breaches of Australian Consumer Law, or "ACL," relating to trivago’s advertisements in Australia concerning the hotel prices available on trivago’s Australian site, trivago’s strike-through pricing practice and other aspects of the way offers for accommodation were displayed on trivago's Australian website. On January 20, 2020, the Australian Federal Court issued a judgment finding trivago had engaged in conduct in breach of the ACL. On October 18 and 19, 2021, the court heard submissions from the parties regarding penalties and other orders. On April 22, 2022, the Australian Federal Court issued a judgment ordering trivago to pay a penalty of AU$44.7 million, which was paid in the second quarter of 2022, and to cover the ACCC’s costs arising from the proceedings. The court also enjoined trivago from engaging in misleading conduct of the type found by the Australian Federal Court to be in contravention of the ACL. We recorded an estimated loss of approximately $11 million with respect to these proceedings in a previous period and an additional loss of approximately $23 million during the first quarter of 2022, for a total of approximately $34 million previously included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities as of March 31, 2022.
Note 9 – Segment Information
We have the following reportable segments: Retail, B2B, and trivago. Our Retail segment provides a full range of travel and advertising services to our worldwide customers through a variety of consumer brands including: Expedia.com and Hotels.com in the United States and localized Expedia and Hotels.com websites throughout the world, Vrbo, Orbitz, Travelocity, Wotif Group, ebookers, CheapTickets, Hotwire.com, CarRentals.com and Expedia Cruises. Our B2B segment is comprised of our Expedia Business Services organization including Expedia Partner Solutions, which offers private label and co-branded products to make travel services available to travelers through third-party company branded websites, and Egencia (until its sale in November 2021), a full-service travel management company that provides travel services to businesses and their corporate customers. Our trivago segment generates advertising revenue primarily from sending referrals to online travel companies and travel service providers from its hotel metasearch websites.
We determined our operating segments based on how our chief operating decision makers manage our business, make operating decisions and evaluate operating performance. Our primary operating metric is Adjusted EBITDA. Adjusted EBITDA for our Retail and B2B segments includes allocations of certain expenses, primarily related to our global travel supply organization and the majority of costs from our product and technology platform, as well as facility costs and the realized foreign currency gains or losses related to the forward contracts hedging a component of our net merchant lodging revenue. We base the allocations primarily on transaction volumes and other usage metrics. We do not allocate certain shared expenses such as accounting, human resources, certain information technology and legal to our reportable segments. We include these expenses in Corporate and Eliminations. Our allocation methodology is periodically evaluated and may change. During the fourth quarter of 2021, we consolidated our divisional finance teams into one global finance organization, which resulted in the reclassification of expenses from Retail and B2B into our Corporate function. We have reclassified prior period segment information to conform to our current period presentation.
Our segment disclosure includes intersegment revenues, which primarily consist of advertising and media services provided by our trivago segment to our Retail segment. These intersegment transactions are recorded by each segment at amounts that approximate fair value as if the transactions were between third parties, and therefore, impact segment performance. However, the revenue and corresponding expense are eliminated in consolidation. The elimination of such intersegment transactions is included within Corporate and Eliminations in the table below.
Corporate and Eliminations also includes unallocated corporate functions and expenses. In addition, we record amortization of intangible assets and any related impairment, as well as stock-based compensation expense, restructuring and related reorganization charges, legal reserves, occupancy tax and other, and other items excluded from segment operating performance in Corporate and Eliminations. Such amounts are detailed in our segment reconciliation below.
The following tables present our segment information for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021. As a significant portion of our property and equipment is not allocated to our operating segments and depreciation is not included in our segment measure, we do not report the assets by segment as it would not be meaningful. We do not regularly provide such information to our chief operating decision makers.
16

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

  Three months ended June 30, 2022
  Retail B2B trivago Corporate &
Eliminations
Total
  (In millions)
Third-party revenue $ 2,420  $ 650  $ 111  $ —  $ 3,181 
Intersegment revenue —  —  43  (43) — 
Revenue $ 2,420  $ 650  $ 154  $ (43) $ 3,181 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 582  $ 156  $ 33  $ (123) $ 648 
Depreciation (127) (20) (3) (26) (176)
Amortization of intangible assets —  —  —  (21) (21)
Impairment of intangible assets —  —  —  (29) (29)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  (93) (93)
Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other —  —  —  (2) (2)
Realized (gain) loss on revenue hedges 15  —  —  18 
Operating income (loss) $ 470  $ 139  $ 30  $ (294) 345 
Other expense, net (472)
Loss before income taxes (127)
Provision for income taxes (58)
Net loss (185)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests — 
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. $ (185)


17

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

  Three months ended June 30, 2021
  Retail B2B trivago Corporate &
Eliminations
Total
  (In millions)
Third-party revenue $ 1,715  $ 305  $ 91  $ —  $ 2,111 
Intersegment revenue —  —  24  (24) — 
Revenue $ 1,715  $ 305  $ 115  $ (24) $ 2,111 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 316  $ (4) $ $ (116) $ 201 
Depreciation (133) (26) (2) (18) (179)
Amortization of intangible assets —  —  —  (26) (26)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  (120) (120)
Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other —  —  — 
Restructuring and related reorganization charges —  —  —  (13) (13)
Realized (gain) loss on revenue hedges (3) —  —  —  (3)
Operating income (loss) $ 180  $ (30) $ $ (285) (132)
Other expense, net (92)
Loss before income taxes (224)
Provision for income taxes 47 
Net loss (177)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. (172)
Preferred stock dividend (22)
Loss on redemption of preferred stock (107)
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. common stockholders $ (301)
18

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

  Six months ended June 30, 2022
  Retail B2B trivago Corporate &
Eliminations
Total
  (In millions)
Third-party revenue $ 4,160  $ 1,082  $ 188  $ —  $ 5,430 
Intersegment revenue —  —  82  (82) — 
Revenue $ 4,160  $ 1,082  $ 270  $ (82) $ 5,430 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 770  $ 236  $ 58  $ (243) $ 821 
Depreciation (255) (40) (5) (51) (351)
Amortization of intangible assets —  —  —  (43) (43)
Impairment of intangible assets —  —  —  (29) (29)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  (183) (183)
Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other —  —  —  (23) (23)
Realized (gain) loss on revenue hedges 15  —  —  18 
Operating income (loss) $ 530  $ 199  $ 53  $ (572) 210 
Other expense, net (545)
Loss before income taxes (335)
Provision for income taxes 27 
Net loss (308)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. $ (307)
19

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements – (Continued)
 

  Six months ended June 30, 2021
  Retail B2B trivago Corporate &
Eliminations
Total
  (In millions)
Third-party revenue $ 2,740  $ 489  $ 128  $ —  $ 3,357 
Intersegment revenue —  —  33  (33)  
Revenue $ 2,740  $ 489  $ 161  $ (33) $ 3,357 
Adjusted EBITDA $ 422  $ (61) $ $ (219) $ 143 
Depreciation (266) (54) (5) (36) (361)
Amortization of intangible assets —  —  —  (53) (53)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  (203) (203)
Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other —  —  — 
Restructuring and related reorganization charges —  —  —  (42) (42)
Realized (gain) loss on revenue hedges —  —  — 
Operating loss $ 162  $ (115) $ (4) $ (544) (501)
Other expense, net (473)
Loss before income taxes (974)
Provision for income taxes 216 
Net loss (758)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. (750)
Preferred stock dividend (50)
Loss on redemption of preferred stock (107)
Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. common stockholders $ (907)
Revenue by Business Model and Service Type
The following table presents revenue by business model and service type:
Three months ended
June 30,
Six months ended
June 30,
2022 2021 2022 2021
(in millions)
Business Model:
Merchant $ 2,125  $ 1,338  $ 3,610  $ 2,134 
Agency 808  573  1,374  896 
Advertising, media and other 248  200  446  327 
Total revenue
$ 3,181  $ 2,111  $ 5,430  $ 3,357 
Service Type:
Lodging $ 2,400  $ 1,533  $ 4,010  $ 2,436 
Air 95  78  169  128 
Advertising and media 213  161  379  249 
Other(1)
473  339  872  544 
Total revenue
$ 3,181  $ 2,111  $ 5,430  $ 3,357 
____________________________
(1)Other includes car rental, insurance, destination services, cruise and fee revenue related to our corporate travel business prior to our sale of Egencia in November 2021, among other revenue streams, none of which are individually material.

Our Retail and B2B segments generate revenue from the merchant, agency and advertising, media and other business models as well as all service types. trivago segment revenue is generated through advertising and media.
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Part I. Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Forward-Looking Statements
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements reflect the views of our management regarding current expectations and projections about future events and are based on currently available information. Actual results could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” as well as those discussed elsewhere in this report. COVID-19, and the volatile regional and global economic conditions stemming from it, and additional or unforeseen effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, could also give rise to or aggravate these risk factors, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations (including revenues and profitability) and/or stock price. Further, COVID-19 may also affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The use of words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “goal,” “intends,” “likely,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projected,” “seeks,” “should” and “will,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, among others, generally identify forward-looking statements; however, these words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. We are not under any obligation to, and do not intend to, publicly update or review any of these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, even if experience or future events make it clear that any expected results expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements will not be realized. Please carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report and in our other reports filed with the SEC that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
The information included in this management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes included in this Quarterly Report, and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Overview
Expedia Group's mission is to power global travel for everyone, everywhere. We believe travel is a force for good. Travel is an essential human experience that strengthens connections, broadens horizons and bridges divides. We help reduce the barriers to travel, making it easier, more enjoyable, more attainable and more accessible. We bring the world within reach for customers and partners around the globe. We leverage our supply portfolio, platform and technology capabilities across an extensive portfolio of consumer brands, and provide solutions to our business partners, to empower travelers to efficiently research, plan, book and experience travel. We make available, on a stand-alone and package basis, travel services provided by numerous lodging properties, airlines, car rental companies, activities and experiences providers, cruise lines, alternative accommodations property owners and managers, and other travel product and service companies. We also offer travel and non-travel advertisers access to a potential source of incremental traffic and transactions through our various media and advertising offerings on our websites. For additional information about our portfolio of brands, see the disclosure set forth in Part I, Item 1, Business, under the caption “Management Overview” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
All percentages within this section are calculated on actual, unrounded numbers.
Trends
The COVID-19 pandemic, and measures to contain the virus, including government travel restrictions and quarantine orders, have had a significant negative impact on the travel industry. COVID-19 has negatively impacted consumer sentiment and consumer’s ability to travel, and many of our supply partners, particularly airlines and hotels, continue to operate at reduced but improving service levels.
Additionally, further health-related events, political instability, geopolitical conflicts, acts of terrorism, significant fluctuations in currency values, sustained levels of increased inflation, sovereign debt issues, and natural disasters, are examples of other events that could have a negative impact on the travel industry in the future. More specifically, the recent Russia/
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Ukraine conflict has had a varying impact on the travel industry and potential broader economic uncertainties, and it remains unclear what the extent of the impact on future results will be.
Our financial and operating results for both 2020 and 2021 were significantly impacted due to the decrease in travel demand related to COVID-19. During the first half of 2022, we have experienced an increase in travel demand and gross bookings have nearly recovered as of the second quarter to pre-COVID levels. However, the full duration and total impact of COVID-19 and related variants remains uncertain, and it is difficult to predict the future impacts on the travel industry and, in particular, our business.
In addition, COVID-19 has also had broader economic impacts, including at times an increase in unemployment levels and reduction in economic activity globally. As the recovery unfolds, staffing shortages have also been experienced across most of the hospitality industry. Broader, sustained negative economic impacts could continue to put strain on our suppliers, business and service partners, which increases the risk of credit losses and service level or other disruptions. Our future results of operations may be subject to volatility, particularly in the short-term, due to the impact of the above trends.
Prior to the onset of COVID-19, we began to execute a cost savings initiative aimed at simplifying the organization and increasing efficiency. Following the onset of COVID-19, we accelerated execution on several of these cost savings initiatives and took additional actions to reduce costs to help mitigate the impact to demand from COVID-19 and reduce our monthly cash usage. While some cost actions during COVID-19 were temporary and intended to minimize cash usage during this disruption, we expect to continue to benefit from the majority of the savings as business conditions return to more normalized levels. In 2021, we successfully achieved the previously outlined annualized run-rate fixed costs savings of $700 to $750 million compared to the fourth quarter of 2019 exit rate, as well as the greater than $200 million in variable cost savings, at 2019 volume levels. We also believe we have improved our marketing efficiency and continue to evaluate additional opportunities to increase efficiency and improve operational effectiveness across the Company.
As a result of these cost savings initiatives, we expect Adjusted EBITDA margins to increase compared to historical levels when revenue returns to more normalized levels.
Online Travel
Increased usage and familiarity with the internet continues to drive rapid growth in online penetration of travel expenditures. Online penetration is higher in the U.S. and European markets with online penetration rates in the emerging markets, such as Asia Pacific and Latin American regions, historically lagging behind those regions. The emerging market penetration rates increased over the past few years, and are expected to continue growing, which presents an attractive growth opportunity for our business, while also attracting many competitors to online travel. This competition intensified in recent years, and the industry is expected to remain highly competitive for the foreseeable future. In addition to the growth of online travel agencies, we see increased interest in the online travel industry from search engine companies such as Google, evidenced by continued product enhancements, including new trip planning features for users and the integration of its various travel products into the Google Travel offering, as well as further prioritizing its own products in search results. Competitive entrants such as “metasearch” companies, including Kayak.com (owned by Booking Holdings), trivago (in which Expedia Group owns a majority interest) as well as TripAdvisor, introduced differentiated features, pricing and content compared with the legacy online travel agency companies, as well as various forms of direct or assisted booking tools. Further, airlines and lodging companies are aggressively pursuing direct online distribution of their products and services. In addition, the increasing popularity of the “sharing economy,” accelerated by online penetration, has had a direct impact on the travel and lodging industry. Businesses such as Airbnb, Vrbo (previously HomeAway, which Expedia Group acquired in December 2015) and Booking.com (owned by Booking Holdings) have emerged as leaders, bringing incremental alternative accommodation and vacation rental inventory to the market. Many other competitors, including vacation rental metasearch players, continue to emerge in this space, which is expected to continue to grow as a percentage of the global accommodation market. Finally, traditional consumer ecommerce and group buying websites expanded their local offerings into the travel market by adding hotel offers to their websites.
The online travel industry also saw the development of alternative business models and variations in the timing of payment by travelers and to suppliers, which in some cases place pressure on historical business models. In particular, the agency hotel model saw rapid adoption in Europe. Expedia Group facilitates both merchant (Expedia Collect) and agency (Hotel Collect) hotel offerings with our hotel supply partners through both agency-only contracts as well as our hybrid Expedia Traveler Preference (“ETP”) program, which offers travelers the choice of whether to pay Expedia Group at the time of booking or pay the hotel at the time of stay.
In 2020, we shifted to managing our marketing investments holistically across the brand portfolio in our Retail segment to optimize results for the Company, and making decisions on a market by market and customer segment basis that we think are appropriate based on the relative growth opportunity, the expected returns, and the competitive environment. Over time, intense competition historically led to aggressive marketing efforts by the travel suppliers and intermediaries, and a meaningful
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unfavorable impact on our overall marketing efficiencies and operating margins. During 2020, we increased our focus on opportunities to differentiate brands across customer and geographic segments, increase marketing efficiency, drive a higher proportion of transactions through direct channels and ultimately improve the balance of transaction growth and profitability.
Lodging
Lodging includes hotel accommodations and alternative accommodations. As a percentage of our total worldwide revenue in the second quarter of 2022, lodging accounted for 75%. As a result of the improvement in travel demand this year, room nights stayed grew 45% in the first half of 2022, as compared to a growth of 35% in 2021 and a decline of 55% in 2020. The timing of recovery in consumer sentiment on travel and on staying at hotels has, and will continue to be, a factor in our level of room night growth, and we expect that to vary by country. Average Daily Rates (“ADRs”) for rooms stayed for Expedia Group increased 3% in 2020, increased 20% in 2021 and increased 13% in the first half of 2022. During 2021 and the first half of 2022, the increase in ADRs for our Vrbo business, which carries a higher ADR than hotels, remains elevated compared to years prior to the COVID-19 outbreak.
The uncertain environment as a result of COVID-19, including travel restrictions and shifts in consumer behavior, the mix of our lodging bookings across geographies and types of accommodations, and general variability in supply and demand, make it difficult to predict ADR trends in the near-term.
As of June 30, 2022, our global lodging marketplace had approximately 3 million lodging properties available, including over 2 million online bookable alternative accommodations listings and approximately 850,000 hotels.
Hotel. We generate the majority of our revenue through the facilitation of hotel reservations (stand-alone and package bookings). After rolling out ETP globally over a period of several years, during which time we reduced negotiated economics in certain instances to compensate for hotel supply partners absorbing expenses such as credit card fees and customer service costs, our relationships and overall economics with hotel supply partners have been broadly stable in recent years. As we continue to expand the breadth and depth of our global hotel offering, in some cases we have reduced our economics in various geographies based on local market conditions. These impacts are due to specific initiatives intended to drive greater global size and scale through faster overall room night growth. Additionally, increased promotional activities such as growing loyalty programs contribute to declines in revenue per room night and profitability.
Since our hotel supplier agreements are generally negotiated on a percentage basis, any increase or decrease in ADRs has an impact on the revenue we earn per room night. Over the course of the last several years, occupancies and ADRs in the lodging industry generally increased on a currency-neutral basis in a gradually improving overall travel environment. Other factors could pressure ADR trends, including the continued growth in hotel supply in recent years and the increase in alternative accommodation inventory. Further, while the global lodging industry remains very fragmented, there has been consolidation in the hotel space among chains as well as ownership groups. In the meantime, certain hotel chains have been focusing on driving direct bookings on their own websites and mobile applications by advertising lower rates than those available on third-party websites as well as incentives such as loyalty points, increased or exclusive product availability and complimentary Wi-Fi.
Alternative Accommodations. With our acquisition of Vrbo (previously HomeAway) and all of its brands in December 2015, we expanded into the fast growing alternative accommodations market. Vrbo is a leader in this market and represents an attractive growth opportunity for Expedia Group. Vrbo has transitioned from a listings-based classified advertising model to an online transactional model that optimizes for both travelers and homeowner and property manager partners, with a goal of increasing monetization and driving growth through investments in marketing as well as in product and technology. Vrbo offers hosts subscription-based listing or pay-per-booking service models. It also generates revenue from a traveler service fee for bookings. In addition, we have actively moved to integrate Vrbo listings into our global Retail services, as well as directly add alternative accommodation listings to our offerings, to position our key global brands to offer a full range of lodging options for consumers.
Air
The airline industry has been dramatically impacted by COVID-19. As a result of the significantly reduced air travel demand due to government travel restrictions and the impact on consumer sentiment related to COVID-19, airlines have been operating with less capacity and passenger traffic has declined significantly. While we have experienced improvement in air bookings in the first half of 2022 and throughout 2021, versus 2020, it continues to lag lodging bookings and remains below 2019 levels. The recovery in air travel remains difficult to predict, and may not correlate with the recovery in lodging demand. According to the Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”), air traveler 7-day average throughput declined 95% in April 2020 compared to prior year levels. The declines moderated to down approximately 20% by the end of 2021, and as of mid-July 2022 were down 12%, compared to 2019 levels.
In addition, there is significant correlation between airline revenue and fuel prices, and fluctuations in fuel prices generally take time to be reflected in air revenue. Given current volatility, it is uncertain how fuel prices could impact airfares.
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We could encounter pressure on air remuneration as air carriers combine, certain supply agreements renew, and as we continue to add airlines to ensure local coverage in new markets.
Air ticket volumes increased 20% in the first half of 2022 and 43% in 2021, compared to a decline of 63% in 2020. As a percentage of our total worldwide revenue in the second quarter of 2022, air accounted for 3%.
Advertising & Media
Our advertising and media business is principally driven by revenue generated by trivago, a leading hotel metasearch website, and Expedia Group Media Solutions, which is responsible for generating advertising revenue on our global online travel brands. In the second quarter of 2022, we generated $213 million of advertising and media revenue, a 33% increase from the same period in 2021, representing 7% of our total worldwide revenue. Given the decline in travel demand related to COVID-19, online travel agencies dramatically reduced marketing spend, including on trivago, and given the uncertain duration and impact of COVID-19 it is difficult to predict when spend will recover to normalized levels. In response, in 2020, trivago significantly reduced its marketing spend and took additional actions to lower operating expenses, which continued throughout 2021 and through the first half of 2022. We expect trivago to continue to experience pressure on revenue and profit until online travel agencies and other hotel suppliers see consumer demand that warrants increasing their advertising spend with trivago.
Business Strategy
As we endeavor to power global travel for everyone, everywhere our focus is to: leverage our brand and supply strength, and our platform, to provide greater services and value to our travelers, suppliers and business partners, and generate sustained, profitable growth.
Leverage Brand and Supply Strength to Power the Travel Ecosystem. We believe the strength of our brand portfolio and consistent enhancements to product and service offerings, combined with our global scale and broad-based supply, drive increasing value to customers and customer demand. With our significant global audience of travelers, and our deep and broad selection of travel products, we are also able to provide value to supply partners wanting to grow their business through a better understanding of travel retailing and consumer demand in addition to reaching consumers in markets beyond their reach. Our deep product and supply footprint allows us to tailor offerings to target different types of consumers and travel needs, employ geographic segmentation in markets around the world, and leverage brand differentiation, among other benefits. Recently, we shifted to more of a unified brand strategy with an increased focus on uniting our retail brands and teams under one centralized group, which we believe will enable us to drive further value to travelers. For example, in 2021, we announced plans to unify and expand our existing loyalty programs into one global rewards platform spanning all products and global brands. We also market to consumers through a variety of channels, including internet search, metasearch and social media websites, and having multiple brands appear in search results also increases the likelihood of attracting new visitors. Further, we are focusing on building longer term customer relationships. To drive this, we need to engage our customers more frequently, generate more repeat business and drive more transactions on a direct basis. Two key factors drive the value of a traveler in our view – their membership in our loyalty program and the usage of our app. We hence are focused on converting our traffic to join our loyalty programs and use of our app. We believe that will in the long-term increase conversion from our traffic, increase repeat rates, lower acquisition cost of travelers and ultimately drive increased lifetime value of our travelers.
Leverage Our Platform to Deliver More Rapid Product Innovation Resulting in Better Traveler Experiences. During 2020, Expedia Group shifted to a platform operating model with more unified technology, product, data engineering and data science teams building services and capabilities that are leveraged across our business units to serve our end customers and provide value-add services to our travel suppliers. This model enables us to deliver more scalable services and operate more efficiently. All of our transaction-based businesses share and benefit from our platform infrastructure, including customer servicing and support, data centers, search capabilities and transaction processing functions, including payment processing and fraud operations.
As we continue to evolve our platform infrastructure, our focus is on developing technical capabilities that support various travel products while using common applications and frameworks. We believe this strategy will enable us to: build in parallel because of simpler, standard architecture; ship products faster; create more innovative solutions; and achieve greater scale. And ultimately, we believe this will result in faster product innovation and therefore better traveler experiences, which is a bigger focus for the Company going forward. In addition, over time, as we enable domains around application development frameworks, we believe we can unlock additional platform service opportunities beyond our internal brands and other business travel partners.

Seasonality
We generally experience seasonal fluctuations in the demand for our travel services. For example, traditional leisure travel bookings are generally the highest in the first three quarters as travelers plan and book their spring, summer and winter
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holiday travel. The number of bookings typically decreases in the fourth quarter. Since revenue for most of our travel services, including merchant and agency hotel, is recognized as the travel takes place rather than when it is booked, revenue typically lags bookings by several weeks for our hotel business and can be several months or more for our alternative accommodations business. Historically, Vrbo has seen seasonally stronger bookings in the first quarter of the year, with the relevant stays occurring during the peak summer travel months. The seasonal revenue impact is exacerbated with respect to income by the nature of our variable cost of revenue and direct sales and marketing costs, which we typically realize in closer alignment to booking volumes, and the more stable nature of our fixed costs. Furthermore, operating profits for our primary advertising business, trivago, have typically been experienced in the second half of the year, particularly the fourth quarter, as selling and marketing costs offset revenue in the first half of the year as we typically increase marketing during the busy booking period for spring, summer and winter holiday travel. As a result on a consolidated basis, revenue and income are typically the lowest in the first quarter and highest in the third quarter. The growth of our international operations, advertising business or a change in our product mix, including the growth of Vrbo, may influence the typical trend of the seasonality in the future.
Impacts from COVID-19 disrupted our typical seasonal pattern for bookings, revenue, profit and cash flows during 2020 and 2021. Significantly higher cancellations and reduced booking volumes, particularly in the first half of 2020, resulted in material operating losses and negative cash flow. Booking and travel trends improved in the second half of 2020, in 2021, and in the first half of 2022. This has resulted in working capital benefits and positive cash flow more akin to typical historical trends. It remains difficult to forecast the seasonality for the upcoming quarters, given the uncertainty related to COVID-19 and the shape and timing of any sustained recovery.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that we believe are important in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements because they require that we use judgment and estimates in applying those policies. We prepare our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). Preparation of the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements as well as revenue and expenses during the periods reported. We base our estimates on historical experience, where applicable, and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
There are certain critical estimates that we believe require significant judgment in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if:
It requires us to make an assumption because information was not available at the time or it included matters that were highly uncertain at the time we were making the estimate; and
Changes in the estimate or different estimates that we could have selected may have had a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created and may continue to create significant uncertainty in macroeconomic conditions, which may cause further business disruptions and adversely impact our results of operations. As a result, many of our estimates and assumptions required increased judgment and carry a higher degree of variability and volatility. As events continue to evolve and additional information becomes available, our estimates may change materially in future periods
For additional information about our other critical accounting policies and estimates, see the disclosure included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 as well as updates in the current fiscal year provided in Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Occupancy and Other Taxes
Legal Proceedings. We are currently involved in eight lawsuits brought by or against states, cities and counties over issues involving the payment of hotel occupancy and other taxes. We continue to defend these lawsuits vigorously. With respect to the principal claims in these matters, we believe that the statutes and/or ordinances at issue do not apply to us or the services we provide, namely the facilitation of travel planning and reservations, and, therefore, that we do not owe the taxes that are claimed to be owed. We believe that the statutes and ordinances at issue generally impose occupancy and other taxes on entities that own, operate or control hotels (or similar businesses) or furnish or provide hotel rooms or similar accommodations
For additional information and other recent developments on these and other legal proceedings, see Part II, Item 1, Legal Proceedings.
We have established a reserve for the potential settlement of issues related to hotel occupancy and other tax litigation, consistent with applicable accounting principles and in light of all current facts and circumstances, in the amount of $50 million as of both June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
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Certain jurisdictions, including without limitation the states of New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Arizona, Wisconsin, Idaho, Arkansas, Indiana, Maine, Nebraska, Vermont, Mississippi, Virginia, the city of New York, and the District of Columbia, have enacted legislation seeking to tax online travel company services as part of sales or other taxes for hotel and/or other accommodations and/or car rental. In addition, in certain jurisdictions, we have entered into voluntary collection agreements pursuant to which we have agreed to voluntarily collect and remit taxes to state and/or local taxing jurisdictions. We are currently remitting taxes to a number of jurisdictions, including without limitation the states of New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, North Carolina, Minnesota, Georgia, Wyoming, West Virginia, Oregon, Rhode Island, Montana, Maryland, Kentucky, Maine, Pennsylvania, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Arizona, Wisconsin, Idaho, Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Vermont, Colorado, Mississippi, Virginia, the city of New York and the District of Columbia, as well as certain other jurisdictions.
Pay-to-Play
Certain jurisdictions may assert that we are required to pay any assessed taxes prior to being allowed to contest or litigate the applicability of the ordinances. This prepayment of contested taxes is referred to as “pay-to-play.” Payment of these amounts is not an admission that we believe we are subject to such taxes and, even when such payments are made, we continue to defend our position vigorously. If we prevail in the litigation, for which a pay-to-play payment was made, the jurisdiction collecting the payment will be required to repay such amounts and also may be required to pay interest. However, any significant pay-to-play payment or litigation loss could negatively impact our liquidity.
Other Jurisdictions. We are also in various stages of inquiry or audit with various tax authorities, some of which, including the City of Los Angeles regarding hotel occupancy taxes, may impose a pay-to-play requirement to challenge an adverse inquiry or audit result in court.

Segments
We have the following reportable segments: Retail, B2B, and trivago. Our Retail segment provides a full range of travel and advertising services to our worldwide customers through a variety of consumer brands including: Expedia.com and Hotels.com in the United States and localized Expedia and Hotels.com websites throughout the world, Vrbo, Orbitz, Travelocity, Wotif Group, ebookers, CheapTickets, Hotwire.com, CarRentals.com and Expedia Cruises. Our B2B segment is comprised of our Expedia Business Services organization including Expedia Partner Solutions, which offers private label and co-branded products to make travel services available to travelers through third-party company branded websites, and, through its sale in November 2021, Egencia, a full-service travel management company that provides travel services to businesses and their corporate customers. Our trivago segment generates advertising revenue primarily from sending referrals to online travel companies and travel service providers from its hotel metasearch websites.
Operating Metrics
Our operating results are affected by certain metrics, such as gross bookings and revenue margin, which we believe are necessary for understanding and evaluating us. Gross bookings generally represent the total retail value of transactions booked for agency and merchant transactions, recorded at the time of booking reflecting the total price due for travel by travelers, including taxes, fees and other charges, and are reduced for cancellations and refunds. Revenue margin is defined as revenue as a percentage of gross bookings.

Gross Bookings and Revenue Margin
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
($ in millions)   ($ in millions)  
Gross bookings $ 26,139  $ 20,815  26  % $ 50,551  $ 36,237  39  %
Revenue margin (1)
12.2  % 10.1  % 10.7  % 9.3  %
 ____________________________
(1)trivago, which is comprised of a hotel metasearch business that differs from our transaction-based websites, does not have associated gross bookings or revenue margin. However, third-party revenue from trivago is included in revenue used to calculate total revenue margin.
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, gross bookings increased 26% and 39%, compared to the same periods in 2021, as travel demand further improved for lodging, air and other travel products during the current year.
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Results of Operations
Revenue
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
  ($ in millions)   ($ in millions)  
Revenue by Segment
Retail $ 2,420  $ 1,715  41  % $ 4,160  $ 2,740  52  %
B2B 650  305  113  % 1,082  489  121  %
trivago (Third-party revenue) 111  91  22  % 188  128  47  %
     Total revenue $ 3,181  $ 2,111  51  % $ 5,430  $ 3,357  62  %
Revenue increased 51% and 62% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021 with all segments growth reflecting the improvement in travel demand.
Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
($ in millions) ($ in millions)
Revenue by Service Type    
Lodging $ 2,400  $ 1,533  57  % $ 4,010  $ 2,436  65  %
Air 95  78  22  % 169  128  33  %
Advertising and media(1)
213  161  33  % 379  249  53  %
Other 473  339  39  % 872  544  60  %
Total revenue
$ 3,181  $ 2,111  51  % $ 5,430  $ 3,357  62  %
____________________________
(1)Includes third-party revenue from trivago as well as our transaction-based websites.
Lodging revenue increased 57% and 65% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, on a 40% and 45% increase in room nights stayed across hotel and alternative accommodations as well as stayed ADR growth of 9% and 13%.
Air revenue increased 22% for the three months ended June 30, 2022 primarily driven by a 21% growth in revenue per air ticket as air travel demand remained stable despite higher airfares. Air revenue increased 33% for the six months ended June 30, 2022 driven by an increase in air tickets sold of 20% and revenue per ticket of 11%.
Advertising and media revenue increased 33% and 53% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, due to increases at both Expedia Group Media Solutions and trivago. All other revenue, which includes car rental, insurance, destination services, fee revenue related to our corporate travel business (through Egencia’s sale in November 2021), increased 39% and 60% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, from growth in travel insurance products and car.
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In addition to the above segment and product revenue discussion, our revenue by business model is as follows:
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
  ($ in millions)   ($ in millions)  
Revenue by Business Model
Merchant $ 2,125  $ 1,338  59  % $ 3,610  $ 2,134  69  %
Agency 808  573  41  % 1,374  896  53  %
Advertising, media and other 248  200  24  % 446  327  37  %
     Total revenue $ 3,181  $ 2,111  51  % $ 5,430  $ 3,357  62  %
Merchant revenue increased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in merchant hotel revenue driven by an increase in room nights stayed as well as an increase in Vrbo merchant alternative accommodations revenue and travel insurance revenue.
Agency revenue increased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in agency hotel, air, alternative accommodations and car revenue.
Advertising, media and other increased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in advertising revenue.
Cost of Revenue
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
  ($ in millions)   ($ in millions)  
Direct costs $ 345  $ 266  29  % $ 644  $ 467  38  %
Personnel and overhead 74  108  (31) % 146  218  (33) %
Total cost of revenue $ 419  $ 374  12  % $ 790  $ 685  15  %
% of revenue 13.2  % 17.7  % 14.6  % 20.4  %
Cost of revenue primarily consists of direct costs to support our customer operations, including our customer support and telesales as well as fees to air ticket fulfillment vendors; credit card processing, including merchant fees, fraud and chargebacks; and other costs, primarily including data center and cloud costs to support our websites, supplier operations, destination supply, certain transactional level taxes as well as related personnel and overhead costs, including stock-based compensation.
Cost of revenue increased $45 million and $105 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to higher merchant fees, customer service costs, and cloud costs as a result of increased transaction volumes, which offset lower personnel costs related to the sale of Egencia in November 2021.
Selling and Marketing
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
  ($ in millions)   ($ in millions)  
Direct costs $ 1,549  $ 1,002  55  % $ 2,725  $ 1,489  83  %
Indirect costs 167  197  (15) % 330  374  (11) %
Total selling and marketing $ 1,716  $ 1,199  43  % $ 3,055  $ 1,863  64  %
% of revenue 53.9  % 56.8  % 56.3  % 55.5  %
Selling and marketing expense primarily relates to direct costs, including traffic generation costs from search engines and internet portals, television, radio and print spending, B2B partner commissions, public relations and other costs. The remainder of the expense relates to indirect costs, including personnel and related overhead in our various brands and global supply organization as well as stock-based compensation costs.
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Selling and marketing expenses increased $517 million and $1.2 billion during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in spend across all main marketing channels as well as an increase in B2B partner commissions. In addition, the decrease in indirect costs in the current year periods was primarily driven by lower personnel costs related to the sale of Egencia in November 2021.

Technology and Content
  Three months ended June 30,   Six months ended June 30,  
  2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change
  ($ in millions)