TIDMAOF

RNS Number : 0595B

Africa Opportunity Fund Limited

29 September 2022

29 September, 2022

Africa Opportunity Fund Limited

("AOF" or the "Company", or the "Fund")

Half Yearly Report for the Six Months ended 30 June 2022

T h e Board of Direc tors of Africa O pportunity Fund Limited is pl eased to announce its un a udit ed r e sults for the 6 month period to 30 June 2022. T he full half yearly r e port for the period ended 30 June 2022 will be sent to shareholders and will be a v a ilable soon on the Company's website: www. a fricaopportunit y fu nd.com .

Highlights :

-- AOF's Ordinary share n et asset value per s hare of U S $1.003 as at 30 June 2022, generating a total return of -4.7% from the 31 December 2021 net asset value per share of U S $1.052.

-- As at 30 June 2022, A O F 's investment all ocat i on for its Ordin ary S har es was all equiti es.

-- AOF's shareholders voted on 29 June 2022 to extend the realisation period of its portfolio from 30 June 2022 to 30 June 2024.

   --      AOF's Ordinary S h a res net asset v a lue per share on 31 July 2022 was US $0.96. 

-- AOF mandatorily redeemed 4.57 million shares for an aggregate consideration of $4.5 million in July 2022.

Manager's Commentary :

Market Conditions

AOF's total return in H1 2022 was -4.7%. As a reference, during this period in USD the S&P fell 20%, Brazil rose 1%, Russia fell 19%, India fell 13%, and China fell 8%. In Africa, South Africa fell 8%, Egypt fell 34%, Kenya fell 25%, and Nigeria rose 26%. Three Africa-focused exchange traded funds - the Lyxor Pan Africa ETF (LGQM GY), the DBX MSCI Africa Top 50 (XMAF LN), and Van Eck Africa Index (AFK US), fell, respectively, 15%, 17%, and 16%.

Ordinary Shares Portfolio Highlights

AOF made progress realising and distributing the proceeds from its less liquid portfolio holdings during H1 2022. The Russian invasion of Ukraine, rising global inflation, an appreciating US Dollar, and the spate of China Covid-19 lockdowns casting a pall on commodity demand were the proximate global causes for the sharp market declines of H1 and the depreciation of African currencies like the CFA Franc and the Egyptian Pound. The Ghanaian Cedi's 23% depreciation against the US Dollar, however, was primarily driven by internal factors such as sharp rises in Cedi-denominated debt yields and the Ghana government's loss of access to the Eurobond markets as the spread on its Eurobonds soared comfortably above 1,000 basis points over US government bonds to place them in the distressed debt category. The Fund sold its entire holding of Societe de Caoutchous de Grand-Bereby, sold most of its Letshego shares, and a modest amount of its Copperbelt holdings. All the disposals were made in the market.

The remaining holdings of the Fund are, as a generalisation, very illiquid. Three of them accounted for 68% of the Fund's H1 losses. Some commentary on them is in order. We intend to pursue a combination of block trades plus the occasional corporate transaction to effect an orderly realisation of the remaining portfolio.

Enterprise Group's shares, in H1, gained 18% in Cedis but fell 8% in US Dollars. It released its annual report and its Q1 and Q2 2022 results. Enterprise Group faces the deep uncertainties of a Ghana negotiating its 17(th) program with the International Monetary Fund. Enterprise's H1 2022 net profits belonging to its shareholders, year-on-year, rose by 29% in Cedis and 5% in US Dollars. Operating expenses, H1-on-H1, rose 19% versus a 29% increase in net insurance premia in the same period. However, investment income was stagnant and benefits and claims rose by 42%, year-on-year. It is displaying resilience in US Dollars. Enterprise's shares trade on a P/E ratio of 6.5x and a P/B ratio of 0.82x, with a return on average equity of 13%. Enterprise's US Dollar track record of book value per share change and dividends paid between 2001 and 2021, despite an 88% depreciation of the Cedi, was a 39x multiple. Over time, against this macroeconomic stress, it should continue to grow its revenues and profits.

Copperbelt Energy executed a new 13-year Bulk Supply Agreement with ZESCO in H1. Its execution (two years in the making since the 2020 expiry of the old Bulk Supply Agreement) allows Copperbelt and ZESCO to plan their capital expenditure programs over a long period, as befits the capital-intensive electricity sector. At Copperbelt's current share price of ZMW 3.5/share (corresponding to $369 million market capitalization and an enterprise value of $295 million), Copperbelt trades on a P/E ratio of 5.6x, a gross dividend yield of 14.27%, and a P/B ratio of 1.05x. Its annualised return on assets is 8.8% and its annualised return on equity is 17.5%. Copperbelt's H1 2022 results were strong: total energy transmitted through its networks rose 7% to 3461 GWh; revenues rose 12%, EBITDA rose 11%, cash generated from operations rose 16%, net profits rose 18% to $30 million, and its net cash balance rose 27% to $106 million. In sum, Copperbelt is a net cash electric utility of improving fortunes.

Zimbabwean inflation continues to rise rapidly. It is now over 200%. Its currency dropped sharply in the parallel market. The proximate causes were, in all likelihood, the rocketing costs of fuel and grain imports. Consequently, the valuations of First Mutual Properties and Mashonaland Holdings fell sharply in US Dollars. The Fund's property holdings preserve purchasing power in the long run in an economy suffering from foreign currency shortages and hyperinflation.

Extraordinary general meeting of the Fund's shareholders

The Fund held an extraordinary general meeting in June 2022 to determine whether to extend the realisation period of the Fund. Consistent with the Fund's investment policy, the Investment Manager sought to maximise sales proceeds from the Fund's portfolio. However, the pace of disposal was slower than anticipated because of the negative impacts on valuation and liquidity of some of the Fund's holdings arising from unexpected developments like the covid pandemic and the Ukraine war and, in some cases, company-idiosyncratic events. The Investment Manager's response was to delay disposals until its estimates of intrinsic value were approached in market valuations. The Fund's NAV performance benefited substantially from this response. A majority of the Fund's shareholders voted to extend the Fund's realisation period to June 2024.

Strategy

The Fund is in the process of realising its holdings. The Investment Manager's approach is to combine a steadfast quest to realise the approximate appraisal or intrinsic value of each security together with opportunistic sales. A distribution was made in July 2022 in the form of a compulsory share redemption worth $4.5 million. The portfolio is now comprised of illiquid holdings and we are looking to the extension period to effectuate a realising of the remaining portfolio.

On Beh a lf of the Investment Mana ger, Africa Opportunity Partners LLC.

Responsibil ity Statements:

T h e Board of Direc tors confirm that, to the best of their knowledge:

a. T he financial statements, pre pared in a c co r dance with I nt e rnation al Financial Reporti ng Standards, give a true a nd fair view of the assets, liabil ities, financial position and profit or loss of the Company.

b. T he I nterim Investment Manager Report, and Condensed Notes to the Financial Statements include:

i. a fair review of the information required by DTR 4.2.7R (indication of import a nt eve nts that have occur red during the first six months and their impact on the financial statements, a nd a desc r ipti on of prin cipal risks a nd uncertainties for the rem a ining six months of the year); and

ii. a fair review of the information required by DTR 4.2.8R (confirmation th at no related p a r ty transactions have taken place in the first six months of the year t h at have materially affected the fin a nci al position or performa nce of the Company dur i ng th at period).

Per Order of t he Board

28 September, 2022

AFRICA OPPORTUNITY FUND LIMITED

UNAUDITED STATEMENT OF PROFIT OR LOSS AND OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

FOR THE PERIOD FROM 1 JANUARY 2022 TO 30 JUNE 2022

 
                                                                For the                   For the period 
                                                                 period 
                                                               ended 30                      ended 30 
                                                                  June                         June 
                                              Notes              2022                          2021 
                                                     ----------------------------  --------------------------- 
 
                                                                  USD                          USD 
 Income 
 Net gains on investment in subsidiaries 
  at fair value 
 through profit or loss                       6(a)                              -                    9,437,363 
 
                                                                                -                    9,437,363 
                                                     ----------------------------  --------------------------- 
 Expenses 
 Net losses on investment in subsidiaries 
  at fair value 
 through profit or loss                       6(a)                      1,022,622                            - 
 
   Realisation fee                                                         25,000                      149,395 
 
   Other operating expenses                                                56,576                       44,590 
 
   Directors' fees                                                         35,000                       35,000 
 
   Audit and professional fees                                             66,670                       67,228 
                                                                        1,205,868                      296,213 
                                                     ----------------------------  --------------------------- 
 
 
   (Loss)/income for the period attributable 
   to equity holders                                                  (1,205,868)                    9,141,150 
                                                     ============================  =========================== 
 
 

AFRICA OPPORTUNITY FUND LIMITED

UNAUDITED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION

AS AT 30 JUNE 2022

 
                                             Notes           30 June               30 June 
                                                               2022                  2021 
                                                    ------------------------  ----------------- 
 
                                                               USD                   USD 
 ASSETS 
 Cash and cash equivalents                     8                      50,103             39,604 
 Investment in subsidiaries at fair 
  value through profit or loss*              6(a)                 24,823,222         24,557,221 
 Receivable from related party                 7                     186,985            116,675 
 Other receivables                             7                       1,123              1,257 
 Total assets                                                     25,061,433         24,714,757 
                                                    ------------------------  ----------------- 
 
 EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 
 
 LIABILITIES 
 Trade and other payables                     10                     190,108            221,833 
 Total liabilities                                                   190,108            221,833 
                                                    ------------------------  ----------------- 
 
 Net assets attributable to shareholders                          24,871,325         24,492,924 
                                                    ========================  ================= 
 
 Ordinary share capital                                              247,878            247,878 
 Share premium                                                     6,451,469          6,440,920 
 Retained earnings                                                18,171,978         17,804,126 
 Total equity                                                     24,871,325         24,492,924 
                                                    ========================  ================= 
 
 Net assets value per share: 
  - Ordinary shares                                                    1.003              0.988 
                                                    ========================  ================= 
 
 *The investment in subsidiares at fair value through profit or loss 
  include the investment in the Master Fund - 
 Africa Opportunity Fund L.P. 
 

AFRICA OPPORTUNITY FUND LIMITED

UNAUDITED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

FOR THE PERIOD FROM 1 JANUARY 2022 TO 30 JUNE 2022

 
                              Share                    Share                Retained 
                             Capital                  Premium               Earnings             Total 
                     ----------------------  ------------------------  ------------------  ----------------- 
 
                               USD                      USD                    USD                USD 
 
   At 1 January 
   2022                             247,878                 6,451,469          19,377,846         26,077,193 
 
 OPERATIONS: 
 
   Total 
   comprehensive 
   income 
   for the period                         -                         -         (1,205,868)        (1,205,868) 
                     ----------------------  ------------------------  ------------------  ----------------- 
 
 
   At 30 June 2022                  247,878                 6,451,469          18,171,978         24,871,325 
                     ======================  ========================  ==================  ================= 
 
 

AFRICA OPPORTUNITY FUND LIMITED

UNAUDITED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS

FOR THE PERIOD FROM 1 JANUARY 2022 TO 30 JUNE 2022

 
                                                 For the period                    For the period 
                                                      ended                             ended 
                                                  30 June 2022                      30 June 2021 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
                                                       USD                              USD 
 Operating activities 
 (Loss)/income for the period                                (1,205,868)                        9,141,150 
 
 Adjustment for non-cash items: 
 
 Net losses/(gains) on investment 
  in subsidiaries at 
 fair value through profit or 
  loss                                                         1,022,622                      (9,437,363) 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Cash used in operating activities                             (183,246)                        (296,213) 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Net changes in operating assets 
  and liabilities 
 Reduction in investments in 
  subsidiaries at fair value 
 through profit or loss                                          249,500                        7,453,896 
 Increase in loan receivable 
  from related party                                            (37,433)                         (33,346) 
 Increase in other receivables                                     6,739                            6,259 
 (Decrease)/increase in trade 
  and other payables                                             (6,926)                           74,016 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Net cash generated from operating 
  activities                                                     211,880                        7,500,825 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Financing activities 
 
 Redemption of ordinary shares                                         -                      (7,203,973) 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Cash used in financing activities                                     -                      (7,203,973) 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Net increase in cash and cash 
  equivalents                                                     28,634                              639 
 
 Cash and cash equivalents at 
  1 January                                                       21,469                           38,965 
                                        --------------------------------  ------------------------------- 
 
 Cash and cash equivalents 
  at 30 June                                                      50,103                           39,604 
                                        ================================  =============================== 
 
 

AFRICA OPPORTUNITY FUND LIMITED

NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

FOR THE PERIOD FROM 1 JANUARY 2022 TO 30 JUNE 2022

   1.         GENERAL INFORMATION 

Africa Opportunity Fund Limited (the "Company") was launched with an Alternative Market Listing "AIM" in July 2007 and moved to the Specialist Fund Segment ("SFS") in April 2014.

Africa Opportunity Fund Limited is a closed-ended fund incorporated with limited liability and registered in Cayman Islands under the Companies Law on 21 June 2007, with registered number MC-188243. The Company is exempted from registering with CIMA under the Private Funds Act of the Cayman Islands given that it is listed on the SFS of the London Stock Exchange which is approved by CIMA.

The Company aims to achieve capital growth and income through investment in value, arbitrage, and special situations investments in the continent of Africa. The Company may therefore invest in securities issued by companies domiciled outside Africa which conduct significant business activities within Africa. The Company has the ability to invest in a wide range of asset classes including real estate interests, equity, quasi-equity or debt instruments and debt issued by African sovereign states and government entities.

The Company's investment activities are managed by Africa Opportunity Partners LLC, a limited liability company incorporated in the Delaware, United States and acting as the investment manager pursuant to an Amended and Restated Investment Management Agreement dated 13 June 2022.

To ensure that investments to be made by the Company and the returns generated on the realisation of investments are both effected in the most tax efficient manner, the Company has established Africa Opportunity Fund L.P. (the "Master Fund") as an exempted limited partnership in the Cayman Islands. All investments made by the Company are made through the limited partnership. The limited partners of the limited partnership are the Company and AOF CarryCo Limited. The general partner of the limited partnership is Africa Opportunity Fund (GP) Limited. Africa Opportunity Fund Limited includes 100% of Africa Opportunity Fund (GP) Limited.

The financial statements for the Company for the half year ended 30 June 2022 were authorised for issue in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Directors on 28 September 2022.

Presentation currency

The financial statements are presented in United States Dollars ("USD"). All figures are presented to the nearest dollar.

   2.        SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES 

The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied from the prior year to the current year for items which are considered material in relation to the financial statements.

Statement of compliance

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

Basis of preparation

The Company satisfied the criteria of an investment entity under IFRS 10: Consolidated Financial Statements. As such, the Company no longer consolidates the entities it controls. Instead, its interest in the subsidiaries has been classified as fair value through profit or loss, and measured at fair value. This consolidation exemption has been applied prospectively and more details of this assessment are provided in Note 4 "significant accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions." The financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention except for financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss. The preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.

Although these estimates are based on management's knowledge of current events and actions, actual results ultimately may differ from those estimates. In additional to the following: All assets have been assessed for impairment regardless of whether any indicators for impairment were identified; and all possible liabilities that might arise from the winding up of the Company have been accrued for. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires the Board of Directors to exercise its judgment in the process of applying the Company's accounting policies. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements are disclosed in Note 4.

As the entity is not a going concern due to the limited life, the directors have considered an alternative basis of preparation but believe that IFRS as a basis for preparation best reflects the financial position and performance of the entity. The carrying value of the assets, which were determined in accordance with the accounting policies, have been reviewed for possible impairment and changes which have occurred since the year end and consideration has been given to whether any additional provisions are necessary as a result of the decision to deregister. It is expected that all assets will realise at least at the amounts at which they are included in the statement of financial position and there will be no material additional liabilities.

The Company presents its statement of financial position in order of liquidity.

The Company's financial statements include disclosure notes on the Master Fund, Africa Opportunity Fund L.P. given that the net asset value of the Master Fund is a significant component of the Investment in subsidiaries of the Company. These additional disclosures are made in order to provide the users of the financial statements within an overview of the Master Fund performance.

Foreign currency translation

   (i)       Functional and presentation currency 

The Company's financial statements are presented in USD which is the functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which both the Company operates. The Company determines its own functional currency and items included in the financial statements of each entity are measured using that functional currency. The functional currency of the Company is USD. The Company chooses USD as the presentation currency.

   (ii)      Transactions and balances 

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded at the functional currency rate prevailing at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the functional currency spot rate of the exchange ruling at the reporting date. All differences are taken to profit or loss. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates as at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined.

Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

   (a)   Classification 

The Company classifies its financial assets and liabilities in accordance with IFRS 9 into the following categories:

(i) Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

For the Company, financial assets classified at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition include investment in subsidiaries.

Investment in subsidiaries

In accordance with the exception under IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company does not consolidate subsidiaries in the financial statements. Investments in subsidiaries are accounted for as financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with IRFS 9 - Financial Instruments.

Management concluded that the Company meets the definition of an investment entity as it invests solely for returns from capital appreciations, investment income or both, and measures and evaluates the performance of its investments on a fair value basis. Accordingly, consolidated financial statements have not been prepared.

(ii) Financial assets at amortised cost

The Company measures financial assets at amortised cost if both of the following conditions are met:

-- The financial asset is held within a business model with the objective to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows

-- The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding

Financial assets at amortised cost are subsequently measured using the effective interest (EIR) method and are subject to impairment. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised, modified or impaired. The Company's financial assets at amortised cost comprise 'other receivables, receivables from related party' and 'cash and cash equivalents' in the statement of financial position.

(iii) Other financial liabilities

This category includes all financial liabilities, other than those classified as fair value through profit or loss. The Company includes in this category amounts relating to trade and other payables and dividend payable.

   (b)   Initial Recognition 

The Company recognises a financial asset or a financial liability when, and only when, it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame generally established by regulation or convention in the market place are recognised directly on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Master Fund commits to purchase or sell the asset.

   (c)   Initial measurement 

Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recorded in the statement of financial position at fair value. All transaction costs for such instruments are recognised directly in profit or loss.

Derivatives embedded in other financial instruments are treated as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contract, and the host contract is not itself classified as held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. Embedded derivatives separated from the host are carried at fair value.

Financial assets at amortised cost and financial liabilities (other than those classified as held for trading) are measured initially at their fair value plus any directly attributable incremental costs of acquisition or issue.

   (d)   Subsequent measurement 

The Company measures financial instruments which are classified at fair value through profit or loss at fair value. Subsequent changes in the fair value of those financial instruments are recorded in 'Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Interest earned elements of such instruments are recorded separately in 'Interest revenue'.

Financial assets at amortised costs are subsequently measured using the effective interest method and are subject to impairment. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised, modified or impaired.

Financial liabilities, other than those classified as at fair value through profit or loss, are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised, as well as through the amortisation process.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument or, when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instruments, but does not consider future credit losses. The calculation includes all fees paid or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and all other premiums or discounts.

   (e)     Derecognition 

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognised where:

   --                      The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired; or 

-- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a 'pass-through' arrangement; and

Either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset. When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset (or has entered into a pass-through arrangement), and has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset nor transferred control of the asset, the asset is recognised to the extent of the Company's continuing involvement in the asset.

The Company derecognises a financial liability when the obligation under the liability is discharged, cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in profit or loss.

Determination of fair value

The Company measures it investments in subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss at fair value at each reporting date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measured is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible to the Company. The fair value for financial instruments traded in active markets at the reporting date is based on their quoted price without any deduction for transaction costs.

For all other financial instruments not traded in an active market, the fair value is determined by using appropriate valuation techniques. Valuation techniques include: using recent arm's length market transactions; reference to the current market value of another instrument that is substantially the same; discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing models making as much use of available and supportable market data as possible. An analysis of fair values of financial instruments and further details as to how they are measured is provided in Note 6.

The Company uses the following hierarchy for determining and disclosing the fair value of the financial instruments by valuation technique:

-- Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.

-- Level 2: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.

-- Level 3: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company recognises an allowance for expected credit losses (ECLs) for all financial assets measured at amortised cost. When measuring ECL, the Company uses reasonable and supportable forward-looking information, which is based on assumptions for the future movement of different economic drivers and how these drivers will affect each other. Loss given default is an estimate of the loss arising on default. It is based on the difference between the contractual cash flows due and those that the entity would expect to receive, taking into account cash flows from credit enhancements. The Company considers a financial asset in default when contractual payments are 90 days past due. However, in certain cases, the Company may also consider a financial asset to be in default when internal or external information indicates that the Company is unlikely to receive the outstanding contractual amounts in full before taking into account any credit enhancements held by the Company. A financial asset is written off when there is no reasonable expectation of recovering the contractual cash flows.

At the reporting date, other receivables, loan receivables from related party and cash and cash equivalents are de minimis. As a result, no ECL has been recognised as any amount would have been insignificant.

Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the statement of financial position if, and only if, there is a currently legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

This item includes changes in the fair value of financial assets and liabilities held for trading or designated upon initial recognition as 'at fair value through profit or loss' and excludes interest and expenses.

Unrealised gains and losses comprise changes in the fair value of financial instruments for the year and from reversal of prior year's unrealised gains and losses for financial instruments which were realised in the reporting period.

Shares that impose on the Company, an obligation to deliver to shareholders a pro-rata share of the net asset of the Company on liquidation classified as financial liabilities

The shares are classified as equity if those shares have all the following features:

(a) It entitles the holder to a pro rata share of the Company's net assets in the event of the Company's liquidation.

The Company's net assets are those assets that remain after deducting all other claims on its assets. A pro rata share is determined by:

(i) dividing the net assets of the Company on liquidation into units of equal amount; and

(ii) multiplying that amount by the number of the shares held by the shareholder.

(b) The shares are in the class of instruments that is subordinate to all other classes of instruments. To be in such a class the instrument:

(i) has no priority over other claims to the assets of the Company on liquidation, and

(ii) does not need to be converted into another instrument before it is in the class of instruments that is subordinate to all other classes of instruments.

(c) All shares in the class of instruments that is subordinate to all other classes of instruments must have an identical contractual obligation for the issuing Company to deliver a pro rata share of its net assets on liquidation.

In addition to the above, the Company must have no other financial instrument or contract that has:

(a) total cash flows based substantially on the profit or loss, the change in the recognised net assets or the change in the fair value of the recognised and unrecognised net assets of the Company (excluding any effects of such instrument or contract) and

   (b)   the effect of substantially restricting or fixing the residual return to the shareholders. 

The shares that meet the requirements to be classified as a financial liability have been designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition.

Dividend expense

Dividend expense relating to equity securities sold short is recognised when the shareholders' right to receive the payment is established.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank. Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

   3.         CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND DISCLOSURES 

The Company applied for the first-time certain standards and amendments, which are effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022. The Company has not early adopted any other standard, interpretation or amendment that has been issued but is not yet effective.

Although these new standards and amendments applied for the first time in 2020, they did not have a material impact on the financial statements of the Company.

   3.1.     ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND INTERPRETATIONS ISSUED BUT NOT YET EFFECTIVE 

The following standards, amendments to existing standards and interpretations were in issue but not yet effective. The Company would adopt these standards, if applicable, when they become effective. No early adoption of these standards and interpretations is intended by the Board of Directors.

 
                                                             Effective for 
                                                         accounting period 
                                                              beginning on 
                                                                  or after 
 
 Amendments to IAS 8 - Accounting policies, Changes         1 January 2023 
  in Accounting Estimates and Errors 
 Amendments to IAS 1: Classification of Liabilities         1 January 2023 
  as Current or Non-current 
 

The Company does not expect that the adoption of these standards will have any material impact on the financial statements.

   4.         SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS 

The preparation of the Company's financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts recognised in the financial statements and disclosure of contingent liabilities. However, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that could require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected in future periods.

Judgements

In the process of applying the Company's accounting policies, management has made the following judgements, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements:

Going concern

At the Extraordinary General Meeting ("EGM") of the Company held on 29 June 2022, the shareholders voted in favor of a Continuation Resolution which extended the life of the Company, with the current Investment Policy remaining in place, to 30 June 2024. If the assets of the Company are not realised over the period of the extension, the Directors will formulate and revert to Shareholders in 2024 further proposals to continue, reorganise or reconstruct the Company or to wind up the Company.

The Company will continue to return sums to Shareholders by way of compulsory redemption, repurchase of Ordinary Shares in the market or such other method as determined by the Directors.

Below is a brief synopsis of the "New Investing Policy" as approved with the passage of the Continuation Resolution and consistent with the Company's Circular dated 5 June 2019, updated to reflect the two-year continuance:

For a period of up to two additional years following the 29 June 2022 Extraordinary General Meeting (the "Extended Return Period"), the Company will make no new investments (save that it may invest in, or advance additional funds to, existing investments within the Company's portfolio to maximise value and assist in their eventual realisation). The Company will continue to adopt the New Investment Policy whereby the Company's existing portfolio of investments will be divested in a controlled, orderly and timely manner to facilitate a staged return of capital. It should be appreciated that there is no time horizon in terms of the implementation of the New Investment Policy. Although the Company's portfolio is comprised of some liquid equity holdings, the Company's portfolio is weighted to somewhat illiquid investments and it may take the Investment Manager some time to realise these. Shareholders will be provided with an opportunity to reassess the investment policy and distribution policy if investments remain unrealised at the end of the Extended Return Period. Subsequent to the disposal of the investments, the Company will be liquidated, which indicates that it will no longer be a going concern. IAS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements and IAS 10 - Events after the reporting period require that the financial statements should not be prepared on a going concern basis if management determines that it intends to liquidate the entity. The directors have considered an alternative basis of preparation but believe that International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"), as a basis for preparation, best reflects the financial position and performance of the Company. The extension of the Company through 30 June 2024 further supports this methodology.

The carrying value of the of the assets, which were determined in accordance with the accounting policies, have been reviewed for possible impairment and changes which have occurred since the half-year and consideration has been given to whether any additional provisions are necessary as a result of the decision to eventually deregister. It is expected that all assets are fairly valued and will realise at, or near, the amounts at which they are included in the statement of financial position and there will be no material additional liabilities.

Determination of functional currency

The determination of the functional currency of the Company is critical since recording of transactions and exchange differences arising thereon are dependent on the functional currency selected. As described in Note 2, the directors have considered those factors therein and have determined that the functional currency of the Company is the United States Dollar.

Assessment for an investment entity

An investment entity is an entity that:

(a) Obtains funds from one or more investors for the purpose of providing those investor(s) with investment management services;

(b) Commits to its investor(s) that its business purpose is to invest funds solely for returns from capital appreciation, investment income, or both; and

(c) Measures and evaluates the performance of substantially all of its investments on a fair value basis.

An investment entity must demonstrate that fair value is the primary measurement attribute used. The fair value information must be used internally by key management personnel and must be provided to the entity's investors. In order to meet this requirement, an investment entity would:

-- Elect to account for investment property using the fair value model in IAS 40 Investment Property

-- Elect the exemption from applying the equity method in IAS 28 for investments in associates and joint ventures, and

   --           Measure financial assets at fair value in accordance with IFRS 9. 

In addition an investment entity should consider whether it has the following typical characteristics:

   --           It has more than one investment, to diversify the risk portfolio and maximise returns; 
   --           It has multiple investors, who pool their funds to maximise investment opportunities; 
   --           It has investors that are not related parties of the entity; and 
   --           It has ownership interests in the form of equity or similar interests. 

The Board considers that the Company meets the definition of an investment entity as it invests solely for returns from capital appreciations, investment income or both, and measures and evaluates the performance of its investments in subsidiaries on a fair value basis. In addition, the Company has more than one investors and the major investors are not related parties of the Company. The Company also has an exit strategy given that it is a limited life entity, realising its investments at the end of the Return Period of 3 years as per the 'New Investment Policy'. Accordingly, consolidated financial statements have not been prepared. IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements provides "investment entities' an exemption from the consolidation of particular subsidiaries and instead require that an investment entity measures the investment in each eligible subsidiary at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with IFRS 9 Financial Instruments.

Assumptions and Estimates

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are discussed below. The Company based its assumptions and estimates on parameters available when the financial statements were prepared. However, existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments may change due to market changes or circumstances arising beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur. When the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the statement of financial position cannot be derived from active markets, their fair value is determined using a variety of valuation techniques that include the use of mathematical models.

Fair value of financial instruments

The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, estimation is required in establishing fair values. The estimates include considerations of liquidity and model inputs such as credit risk (both own and counterparty's), correlation and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments in the statement of financial position and the level where the instruments are disclosed in the fair value hierarchy.

The models are calibrated regularly and tested for validity using prices from any observable current market transactions in the same instrument (without modification or repackaging) or based on any available observable market data. An analysis of fair values of financial instruments and further details as to how they are measured is provided in Note 6.

IFRS 13 requires disclosures relating to fair value measurements using a three-level fair value hierarchy. The level within which the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety is determined on the basis of the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety as provided in Note 6. Assessing the significance of a particular input requires judgement, considering factors specific to the asset or liability. To assess the significance of a particular input to the entire measurement, the Company performs sensitivity analysis or stress testing techniques.

   5a.       AGREEMENTS 

Investment Management Agreement

Effective 1 July 2022, the Company and the Investment Manager have, upon the approval of the Reorganisation Resolution at the EGM in June 2022, entered into the Amended and Restated Investment Management Agreement which amends the fees payable to the Investment Manager as follows:

Management fees

The management fee shall be reduced to 1 per cent of the Net Asset Value per annum for the two years of the Extended Return Period (the period of up to two years following the EGM held in June 2022).

The Investment Manager's entitlement to future performance fees (through CarryCo) has been cancelled and CarryCo's limited partnership interest in the Limited Partnership will be transferred to the Company for nominal value in the last year of the Extended Return Period, that being 2024.

The revisions to the arrangements with the Investment Manager, constitute a related party transaction under the Company's related party policy, and in accordance with that policy, the Company was required to obtain: (i) the approval of a majority of the Directors who are independent of the Investment Manager; and (ii) a fairness opinion or third-party valuation in respect of such related party transaction from an appropriately qualified independent adviser.

The realisation fee for the financial period under review amounts to USD 25,000 (2021: USD 149,395) of which USD 25,000 (2021: USD 32,500) relates to accrued realisation fees, management and performance fees for the financial period under review were nil (2021: nil).

Administrative Agreement

SS&C Technologies is the Administrator for the Company. Administrative fees are expensed at the Master Fund level and have been included in the NAV of the subsidiary.

Custodian Agreement

A Custodian Agreement has been entered into by the Master Fund and Standard Chartered Bank (Mauritius) Ltd, whereby Standard Chartered Bank (Mauritius) Ltd would provide custodian services to the Master Fund and would be entitled to a custody fee of between 18 and 25 basis points per annum of the value of the assets held by the custodian and a tariff of between 10 and 45 basis points per annum of the value of assets held by the custodian. The custodian fees are expensed at the Master Fund level and have been included in the NAV of the subsidiary.

Prime Brokerage Agreement

Under the Prime Brokerage Agreement, the Master Fund appointed Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC as its prime broker for the purpose of carrying out the Master Fund's instructions with respect to the purchase, sale and settlement of securities. Custodian fees are expensed at the Master Fund level and have been included in the NAV of the subsidiary.

   5b.    SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AT THE MASTER FUND LEVEL 

Africa Opportunity Fund LP (the "Master Fund") is incorporated in the Cayman Islands and is not subject to regulatory review. Management has voluntarily disclosed all the policies and notes to the accounts of the Master Fund to provide shareholders of the Company with a better insight.

The primary accounting policies for interest revenue and expense, dividend revenue and expense and cash and cash equivalents, are similar as in Note 2. Those policies which only relate to the Master Fund's financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied from the prior year to the current year for items which are considered material in relation to the financial statements.

Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

   (a)   Classification 

The Master Fund classifies its financial assets and liabilities in accordance with IFRS 9 into the following categories:

(i) Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

The category of the financial assets and liabilities at fair value through the profit or loss is subdivided into:

Financial assets and liabilities held for trading

Financial assets are classified as held for trading if they are acquired for the purpose of selling and repurchasing in the near term. This category includes equity securities, investments in managed funds and debts instruments. These assets are acquired principally for the purpose of generating a profit from short term fluctuation in price. All derivatives and liabilities from the short sales of financial instruments are classified as held for trading.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition

These include equity securities and debt instruments that are not held for trading. These financial assets are classified at FVTPL on the basis that they are part of a group of financial assets which are managed and have their performance evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with risk management and investment strategies of the Company, as set out in each of their offering documents. The financial information about the financial assets is provided internally on that basis to the Investment Manager and to the Board of Directors.

Derivatives - Options

Derivatives are classified as held for trading (and hence measured at fair value through profit or loss), unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments (however the Company does not apply any hedge accounting). The Master Fund's derivatives relate to option contracts.

Options are contractual agreements that convey the right, but not the obligation, for the purchaser either to buy or sell a specific amount of a financial instrument at a fixed price, either at a fixed future date or at any time within a specified period.

The Master Fund purchases and sells put and call options through regulated exchanges and OTC markets. Options purchased by the Master Fund provide the Master Fund with the opportunity to purchase (call options) or sell (put options) the underlying asset at an agreed-upon value either on or before the expiration of the option. The Master Fund is exposed to credit risk on purchased options only to the extent of their carrying amount, which is their fair value.

Options written by the Master Fund provide the purchaser the opportunity to purchase from or sell to the Master Fund the underlying asset at an agreed-upon value either on or before the expiration of the option.

Options are generally settled on a net basis .

Derivatives relating to options are recorded at the level of the Master Fund. The financial statements of the Company do not reflect the derivatives as they form part of the net asset value (NAV.) of the Master Fund which is fair valued.

(ii) Financial assets at amortised cost

The Master Fund measures financial assets at amortised cost if both of the following conditions are met:

-- The financial asset is held within a business model with the objective to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows

-- The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding

Financial assets at amortised cost are subsequently measured using the effective interest (EIR) method and are subject to impairment. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised, modified or impaired. The Master Fund's financial assets at amortised cost comprise 'trade and other receivables' and 'cash and cash equivalents in the statement of financial position.

(iii) Other financial liabilities

This category includes all financial liabilities, other than those classified as fair value through profit or loss. The Master Fund includes in this category amounts relating to trade and other payables and dividend payable.

   (a)   Recognition 

The Master Fund recognises a financial asset or a financial liability when, and only when, it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame generally established by regulation or convention in the market place are recognised directly on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Master Fund commits to purchase or sell the asset.

   (b)   Initial measurement 

Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recorded in the statement of financial position at fair value. All transaction costs for such instruments are recognised directly in profit or loss.

Derivatives embedded in other financial instruments are treated as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contract, and the host contract is not itself classified as held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. Embedded derivatives separated from the host are carried at fair value.

Financial assets at amortised cost and financial liabilities (other than those classified as held for trading) are measured initially at their fair value plus any directly attributable incremental costs of acquisition or issue.

   (c)   Subsequent measurement 

The Master Fund measures financial instruments which are classified at fair value through profit or loss at fair value. Subsequent changes in the fair value of those financial instruments are recorded in 'Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Interest earned elements of such instruments are recorded separately in 'Interest revenue'. Dividend expenses related to short positions are recognised in 'Dividends on securities sold not yet purchased'. Dividend income/distributions received on investments at FVTPL is recorded in "Net gain or loss on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss".

Financial assets at amortised costs are subsequently measured using the effective interest method and are subject to impairment. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised, modified or impaired.

(iii) Other financial liabilities

   (d)   Subsequent measurement 

Financial liabilities, other than those classified as at fair value through profit or loss, are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised, as well as through the amortisation process.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument or, when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Master Fund estimates cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instruments, but does not consider future credit losses. The calculation includes all fees paid or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and all other premiums or discounts.

   (e)     Derecognition 

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognised where:

   --                 The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired; or 

-- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a 'pass-through' arrangement; and

Either (a) the Master Fund has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Master Fund has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset. When the Master Fund has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset (or has entered into a pass-through arrangement), and has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset nor transferred control of the asset, the asset is recognised to the extent of the Master Fund's continuing involvement in the asset.

The Master Fund derecognises a financial liability when the obligation under the liability is discharged, cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in profit or loss.

Determination of fair value

The Master Fund measures its investments in financial instruments, such as equities, debentures and other interest-bearing investments and derivatives, at fair value at each reporting date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measured is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability or, in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible to the Master Fund. The fair value for financial instruments traded in active markets at the reporting date is based on their quoted price without any deduction for transaction costs.

For all other financial instruments not traded in an active market, the fair value is determined by using appropriate valuation techniques. Valuation techniques include: using recent arm's length market transactions; reference to the current market value of another instrument that is substantially the same; discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing models making as much use of available and supportable market data as possible. An analysis of fair values of financial instruments and further details as to how they are measured is provided in Note 6.

Impairment of financial assets

The Master Fund uses the following hierarchy for determining and disclosing the fair value of the financial instruments by valuation technique:

-- Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.

-- Level 2: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.

-- Level 3: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

The Master Fund recognises an allowance for expected credit losses (ECLs) for all financial assets measured at amortised cost. ECLs are based on the difference between the contractual cash flows due in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Master Fund expects to receive, discounted at an approximation of the original effective interest rate. The expected cash flows will include cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms .

ECLs are recognised either on a 12-month or lifetime basis. For credit exposures for which there has not been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, ECLs are provided for credit losses that result from default events that are possible within the next 12-months (a 12-month ECL). For those credit exposures for which there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, a loss allowance is required for credit losses expected over the remaining life of the exposure, irrespective of the timing of the default (a lifetime ECL).

The Master Fund considers a financial asset in default when contractual payments are 90 days past due. However, in certain cases, the Master fund may also consider a financial asset to be in default when internal or external information indicates that the Master fund is unlikely to receive the outstanding contractual amounts in full before taking into account any credit enhancements held by the Master fund. A financial asset is written off when there is no reasonable expectation of recovering the contractual cash flows.

For trade receivables, the Master Fund applies a simplified approach in calculating ECLs. Therefore, the Master Fund does not track changes in credit risk, but instead recognises a loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date. At the reporting date, the assessment of the Master Fund's debt instruments which include trade and other receivables and cash and cash equivalents were considered as de minimis. As a result, no ECL has been recognised as any amount would have been insignificant.

Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the statement of financial position if, and only if, there is a currently legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Net gain or loss on financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

This item includes changes in the fair value of financial assets and liabilities held for trading or designated upon initial recognition as 'at fair value through profit or loss' and excludes interest and expenses. At the Master Fund Level, the fair value gains and losses exclude interest and dividend income.

Unrealised gains and losses comprise changes in the fair value of financial instruments for the year and from reversal of prior year's unrealised gains and losses for financial instruments which were realised in the reporting period.

Realised gains and losses on disposals of financial instruments classified as 'at fair value through profit or loss' are calculated using the Average Cost (AVCO) method. They represent the difference between an instrument's initial carrying amount and disposal amount, or cash payments or receipts made on derivative contracts (excluding payments or receipts on collateral margin accounts for such instruments).

Due to and due from brokers

Amounts due to brokers are payables for securities purchased (in a regular way transaction) that have been contracted for but not yet delivered on the reporting date at the Master Fund level. Refer to the accounting policy for financial liabilities, other than those classified at fair value through profit or loss for recognition and measurement.

Amounts due from brokers include margin accounts and receivables for securities sold (in a regular way transaction) that have been contracted for but not yet delivered on the reporting date. Refer to accounting policy for financial assets at amortised cost for recognition and measurement.

Interest revenue and expense

Interest revenue and expense are recognised in profit or loss for all interest-bearing financial instruments using the effective interest method.

Dividend revenue

Dividend revenue is recognised when the Master Fund's right to receive the payment is established. Dividend revenue is presented gross of any non-recoverable withholding taxes, which are disclosed separately in profit or loss of the Master Fund.

   6.         FINANCIAL ASSETS AND LIABILITIES AT FAIR VALUE THROUGH PROFIT OR LOSS 
   6(a).    Investment in subsidiaries at fair value 

The Company has established Africa Opportunity Fund L.P., an exempted limited partnership in the Cayman Islands to ensure that the investments made and returns generated on the realisation of the investments made and returns generated on the realisation of the investments are both effected in the most tax efficient manner. All investments made by the Company are made through the limited partner which acts as the master fund. The limited partners of the limited partnership are the Company and AOF CarryCo Limited. The general partner of the limited partnership is Africa Opportunity Fund (GP) Limited. Africa Opportunity Fund Limited hold 100% of the Africa Opportunity Fund (GP) Limited.

 
                                                            2022 
                                             ---------------------------------- 
                                                             USD 
 
 Investment in Africa Opportunity Fund 
  L.P.                                                               24,819,574 
 Investment in Africa Opportunity Fund 
  (GP) Limited                                                            3,648 
                                             ---------------------------------- 
 
 Total investment in subsidiaries 
  at fair value                                                      24,823,222 
                                             ================================== 
 
 Fair value at 01 January                                            26,095,345 
 Reduction in investment in subsidiaries*                             (249,501) 
 Net loss on investment in subsidiaries 
  at fair value                                                     (1,022,622) 
                                             ---------------------------------- 
 
 Fair value at 30 June 2022                                          24,823,222 
                                             ================================== 
 
 

* The reduction in investment in subsidiaries relates to capital withdrawn from the Master Fund by the Company.

   6(b).    Fair value hierarchy 

The Company uses the following hierarchy for determining and disclosing the fair value of the financial instruments by valuation technique:

Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.

Level 2: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.

Level 3: valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.

Note: The assets and liabilities of the Master Fund have been presented but do not represent the assets and liabilities of the Company as the Master Fund has not been consolidated.

   --      Fair value hierarchy of the Company 
 
                         30 June 
                           2022                   Level                  Level 2              Level 
                                                     1                                           3 
                  ---------------------  -----------------------  --------------------  ----------------- 
 COMPANY                                           USD                     USD                 USD 
 
 Investment in 
  subsidiaries               24,823,222                        -            24,823,222                  - 
                  =====================  =======================  ====================  ================= 
 
 
   --      Fair value hierarchy of the Master Fund. 

The Company has investment in Africa Opportunity Fund L.P., the Master Fund, amounting to USD 24,823,222. The underlying investments of the Master Fund amounts to USD 20,917,390. Details on the financial assets and liabilities of the Master Fund and fair value hierarchy are as follows:

 
                          30 June 
                            2022                  Level 1                  Level 2                 Level 
                                                                                                      3 
                  -----------------------  --------------------  --------------------------  ----------------- 
                                                    USD                      USD                    USD 
 
 MASTER FUND 
 
 Financial assets at fair 
  value through profit or 
  loss 
 
 Equities                      20,793,464            14,958,151                   5,835,313                  - 
 Debt securities                  123,926               123,926                           -                  - 
                  -----------------------  --------------------  --------------------------  ----------------- 
 
                               20,917,390            15,082,077                   5,835,313                  - 
                  =======================  ====================  ==========================  ================= 
 
 
   6(c).     The valuation technique of the investment in subsidiaries at Company level is as follow: 

The Company's investment manager considers the valuation techniques and inputs used in valuing these funds as part of its due diligence, to ensure they are reasonable and appropriate and therefore the NAV of these funds may be used as an input into measuring their fair value. In measuring this fair value, the NAV of the funds is adjusted, as necessary, to reflect restrictions on redemptions, future commitments, and other specific factors of the fund and fund manager. In measuring fair value, consideration is also paid to any transactions in the shares of the fund. Given that there has been no such adjustments made to the NAV of the underlying subsidiaries and given the simple structure of the subsidiaries investing over 85% in quoted funds, the Company classifies these investment in subsidiaries as Level 2.

   6(d).     The valuation technique of the investments at Master Fund level are as follows: 

Equity and debt securities

These pertain to equity and debt instruments which are quoted for which there is a market price. As a result, they are classified within level 1 of the hierarchy except for the valuation of listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange which have been classified as level 2 given that their quoted share price has been discounted as at 30 June 2022 as follows:

Valuation of investments listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange

Beginning in June 2020, the Zimbabwe authorities suspended Old Mutual shares from the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange, necessitating the Company to devise an alternative transparent discount factor. The new discount factor is based on the official Zimbabwe Dollar exchange rate at the end of June 2019, when the Zimbabwe Dollar, became the sole legal tender in Zimbabwe, modified by the inflation differential between Zimbabwe and the United States captured in their respective monthly Consumer Price Indices (the US Consumer Price Index is that for urban consumers), then adjusted by the proportion of export proceeds that must be surrendered by Zimbabwean exporters to the Zimbabwe Reserve Bank. The initial surrender requirement was 20% of export proceeds, but the Company after previously utilising a 5% surrender requirement to reflect subsequent exemptions from this surrender requirement granted to some export industries has re-established the 20% requirement to adjust for Zimbabwean modifications to the official exchange rate. This discount factor changes every month. The consequence of applying this discount factor is that the Zimbabwe Dollar prices of the Company's investments listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange were converted into US Dollars, as at 30 June 2022 at a discount rate of 36.8% (the discount rate was 45.5% as at 30 June 2021). The value of the Zimbabwe investments recorded in the books of the Company, after applying this discount factor, was USD 2,709,513 (2021 USD 9,963,667).

Written put options

These are traded on an active market and have a quoted market price. They have therefore been classified in level 1 of the hierarchy. As of 30 June 2022, the Company had no options outstanding.

Unquoted debt and equity investments

African Leadership University ("ALU") is a network of tertiary institutions, currently with operations in both Mauritius and Rwanda. The Investment Manager valued ALU on the basis of an observable arms-length transaction between existing shareholders selling a portion of their shares and an unaffiliated third party. The transactions were ratified at a Board meeting in June 2021, and thus were utilised as the basis of the valuation as at 31 December 2021. At 30 June 2022, the investment in ALU has been classified under level 2 because the value of the investment utilises the recent transaction.

6(e). Statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive Income of the Master Fund for the period from 1 January to 30 June 2022

The net losses on investments in subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss for the period from 1 January 2022 to 30 June 2022 amounted to USD 1,022,622, and net gains on investments in subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss for the period from 1 January 2021 to 30 June 2021 amounted to USD 9,437,363 arising at the Master Fund and can be analysed as follows:

 
                                                         For the period 
                                                          ended 30 June 
                                                              2022 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 
                                                               USD 
 Income 
 Interest revenue                                                       5,630 
 Dividend revenue                                                    212,234 
 Net gains on financial assets and liabilities 
  at fair value 
 through profit or loss                                          (1,116,210) 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 
                                                                     (898,346) 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 Expenses 
 Net foreign exchange loss                                              52,175 
 Custodian fees, brokerage fees and commission                          87,309 
 Other operating expenses                                                2,473 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 
                                                                       141,957 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 
 Operating gain before tax                                         (1,040,303) 
 
 Less withholding tax                                                 (1,570) 
                                                  ---------------------------- 
 
 Total Comprehensive gain for the period                           (1,041,873) 
                                                  ============================ 
 
 Attributable to: 
 AOF Limited (direct interests)                                    (1,022,472) 
 AOF Limited (indirect interests through 
  AOF (GP) Ltd)                                                          (150) 
                                                                   (1,022,622) 
 AOF CarryCo Limited (NCI)                                            (19,251) 
                                                                   (1,041,873) 
                                                  ============================ 
 
 

The financial assets and liabilities of the Master Fund are analysed as follows:

(i) Net (losses)/gains on financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss held by Africa Opportunity Fund L.P.

 
                                                              For the                     For the 
                                                               period                      period 
                                                              ended 30                   ended 30 
                                                                June                        June 
                                                                2022                       2021 
                                                     -------------------------  -------------------------- 
 
                                                                USD                         USD 
 
 
   Net (losses)/gains on fair value of financial 
   assets at fair value through profit or loss                     (1,116,210)                   9,289,279 
                                                     -------------------------  -------------------------- 
 
 
   Net (losses)/gains                                              (1,116,210)                   9,289,279 
                                                     =========================  ========================== 
 
 

(ii) Financial asset and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss held by Africa Opportunity Fund L.P.

 
                                                    For the             For the period 
                                                     period 
                                                    ended 30               ended 30 
                                                      June                   June 
                                                      2022                   2021 
                                             ---------------------  --------------------- 
 
                                                      USD                    USD 
 Held for trading assets: 
 At 1 January                                           24,015,367             19,480,476 
 Disposal                                              (1,981,767)            (4,248,156) 
 Net (losses)/gains on financial 
  assets at fair value through profit 
  or loss                                              (1,116,210)              9,289,279 
                                             ---------------------  --------------------- 
 
 At 30 June (at fair value)                             20,917,390             24,521,599 
                                             =====================  ===================== 
 
 Analysed as follows: 
  - Listed equity securities                            17,667,664             20,734,697 
  - Listed debt securities                                 123,926                161,102 
  - Unlisted equity securities                           3,125,800              3,625,800 
                                             ---------------------  --------------------- 
 
                                                        20,917,390             24,521,599 
                                             =====================  ===================== 
 
 
   (iii)     Net changes on fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss 
 
 
                                   For the period              For the period 
                                      ended 30                  ended 30 June 
                                         June 
                                        2022                        2021 
                             --------------------------  -------------------------- 
 
                                         USD                         USD 
 
 Realised                                     (406,986)                 (1,295,832) 
 Unrealised                                   (709,224)                  10,585,111 
                             --------------------------  -------------------------- 
 
 Total (losses)/gains                       (1,116,210)                   9,289,279 
                             ==========================  ========================== 
 
 
   7.         RECEIVABLES 
 
                                                   30 June                  30 June 
                                                     2022                     2021 
                                         --------------------------  --------------------- 
 
                                                     USD                      USD 
 
 Amounts due from Africa Opportunity 
  Fund L.P.                                                 186,985                116,675 
 Other receivables                                                -                    183 
 Prepayments                                                  1,123                  1,074 
                                         --------------------------  --------------------- 
 
                                                            188,108                117,932 
                                         ==========================  ===================== 
 
 
   8.         CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS 
 
                                  30 June               30 June 
                                    2022                  2021 
                           --------------------  -------------------- 
 
                                    USD                   USD 
 
 
   Other bank accounts                   50,103                39,604 
                           ====================  ==================== 
 
 
   9(a).    ORDINARY SHARE CAPITAL 
 
                            30 June           30 June         30 June 2021        30 June 
                              2022              2022                                2020 
                       -----------------  ---------------  -----------------  -------------- 
 
                             Number             USD              Number             USD 
 Authorised share 
 capital 
 Ordinary shares 
  with a 
 par value of USD 
 0.01                      1,000,000,000       10,000,000      1,000,000,000      10,000,000 
                       =================  ===============  =================  ============== 
 
 Issued share 
  capital 
 Ordinary shares 
  with a 
 par value of USD 
 0.01                         24,787,758          247,878         24,787,758         247,878 
                       =================  ===============  =================  ============== 
 
 

The directors have the general authority to repurchase the ordinary shares in issue subject to the Company having funds lawfully available for the purpose. However, if the market price of the ordinary shares falls below the Net Asset Value, the directors will consult with the Investment Manager as to whether it is appropriate to instigate a repurchase of the ordinary shares.

   9(b).     NET ASSETS ATTRIBUTABLE TO SHAREHOLDERS 
 
                                         Ordinary 
                                          Shares 
                               ---------------------------- 
 
                                            USD 
 
 At 1 January 2022                               26,077,193 
 
 Changes during the period: 
 
 Total comprehensive income 
  for the period                                (1,205,868) 
                               ---------------------------- 
 
 At 30 June 2022                                 24,871,325 
                               ============================ 
 
 Net asset value per share 
  at 30 June 2022                                     1.003 
                               ============================ 
 
 
   10.      TRADE AND OTHER PAYABLES 
 
                                30 June 2022         30 June 2021 
                            -------------------  -------------------- 
 
                                    USD                   USD 
 
 Directors Fees Payable                  17,500                17,500 
 Other Payables                         172,608              204,333 
                            -------------------  -------------------- 
                                        190,108               221,833 
                            ===================  ==================== 
 
 

Other payables are non-interest bearing and have an average term of six months. T he carrying amount of trade and other payables approximates their fair value.

   11.      EARNING PER SHARE 

The earnings per share (EPS) is calculated by dividing the decrease in net assets attributable to shareholders by number of ordinary shares. The EPS for the period ended 30 June 2022 and 2021 represent both the basic and diluted EPS.

 
                                                          Period from                     Period from 
                                                                1                              1 
                                                          January 2022                    January 2021 
                                                           to 30 June                      to 30 June 
                                                              2022                            2021 
                                                 -----------------------------  ------------------------------ 
 
                                                            Ordinary                       Ordinary 
                                                             shares                          shares 
                                                 -----------------------------  ------------------------------ 
 
 Change in net assets attributable 
  to shareholders                         USD                       (1,205,868)                       9,141,150 
                                                  =============================  ============================== 
 
 Number of shares in issue                                          24,787,758                      24,787,758 
                                                 =============================  ============================== 
 
 Change in net assets attributable 
  to shareholders 
  per share                               USD                          (0.049)                           0.369 
                                                 =============================  ============================== 
 
 
   12.      ANALYSIS OF NAV OF MASTER FUND ATTRIBUTABLE TO ORDINARY SHARES 
 
                                            30 June                30 June 2021 
                                              2022 
                                    -----------------------  ----------------------- 
 
 
 ASSETS 
 Cash and cash equivalents                        4,842,108                  853,233 
 Trade and other receivables                        185,473                  225,154 
 Financial assets at fair value 
  through profit or loss                         20,917,390               24,521,599 
 Total assets                                    25,944,971               25,599,986 
                                    -----------------------  ----------------------- 
 
 EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 
 Liabilities 
 Trade and other payables                           469,208                  474,296 
 Amount payable to related party 
  - AOF Ltd                                         186,985                  116,675 
 Total liabilities                                  656,193                  590,971 
                                    -----------------------  ----------------------- 
 
 Net assets attributable to 
  members' account                               25,288,778               25,009,015 
                                    =======================  ======================= 
 
 
   13.       TAXATION 

Under the current laws of Cayman Islands, there is no income, estate, transfer sales or other Cayman Islands taxes payable by the Company. As a result, no provision for income taxes has been made in the financial statements.

Dividend revenue is presented gross of any non-recoverable withholding taxes, which are disclosed separately in the statement of comprehensive income. Withholding taxes are not separately disclosed in statement of cash flows as they are deducted at the source of the income.

   14.      SEGMENT INFORMATION 

For management purposes, the Çompany is organised in one main operating segment, which invests in equity securities, debt instruments and relative derivatives. All of the Company's activities are interrelated, and each activity is dependent on the others. Accordingly, all significant operating decisions are based upon analysis of the Company as one segment. The financial results from this segment are equivalent to the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

   15.       PERSONNEL 

The Company did not employ any personnel during the period (2021: the same).

   16.       COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES 

There are no commitments or contingencies at the reporting date.

   17.       SIGNIFICANT EVENTS 

TERMINATION OF PRIME BROKER RELATIONSHIP

Credit Suisse (USA) LLC (the Prime Broker) made the determination it would leave the Prime Brokerage business. As a result of this decision, the Company began moving investments and cash from the Prime Broker to its existing custodian, Standard Chartered Bank (Mauritius). As the Company is undergoing the realisation investment strategy, the transfer of securities does not adversely impact the Company as it may under an investment strategy in which the use of margin is required for investment activities.

COVID-19 PANDEMIC

As Covid-19 continues to evolve new variants, the impacts, including a potential global, regional or other economic recession, continue to be uncertain and difficult to assess. Public health emergencies, including outbreaks of Covid-19 or other existing or new epidemic diseases, or the threat thereof, and the resulting financial and economic market uncertainty could have a significant adverse impact on the Company, including the fair value of its investments. The current investment strategy and distribution policy, while mitigating some operational risks due to the enhanced levels of cash and cash equivalents as a consequence of the realisation efforts, does pose other challenges as the Investment Manager continues to attempt to maximise value while realising investments during this volatile environment. The Company and Africa Opportunity Fund, L.P. will continue to meet their working capital requirements and other obligations through utilisation of existing cash resources.

The Board and the Investment Manager are actively working towards assessing and minimizing risks to the Fund's portfolio; however, given the degree of uncertainty around the potential future course of Covid-19, it is not possible to accurately quantify the future impact on the portfolio at this time.

UKRAINE GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

The Investment Manager notes that market disruptions, which began in February 2022, associated with geopolitical events related to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine may adversely affect the value of the Company's assets and thus the Company's performance. Management continues to monitor these events and to evaluate the related impacts, if any, to the Company.

   18.       SUBSEQUENT EVENTS 

MANDATORY REDEMPTION

The Directors, at their sole discretion, can effect a compulsory redemption of the Ordinary Shares on an ongoing basis and will therefore undertake a staged return of capital to shareholders. On 28 June 2022, the Board of Directors of Africa Opportunity Fund Limited announced the mandatory redemption of 4,573,168 Ordinary shares. On 6 July 2022, the mandatory redemption was completed and AOF redeemed the 4,573,168 Ordinary Shares, on a pro rata basis, at the prevailing NAV per Ordinary Share of $0.984 as at 31 May 2022. Such shares were cancelled automatically following their redemption. Fractions of shares produced by the applicable redemption ratios have not been redeemed and so the number of shares redeemed in respect of each shareholder has been rounded down to the nearest whole number of shares. Payments of redemption proceeds were effected either through Euroclear or Clearstream (in the case of shares held in uncertificated form) or by cheque (in the case of shares held in certificated form) on or around 13 July 2022. Following the Mandatory Redemption, the Company has 20,214,590 Ordinary Shares in issue. As a result of the Mandatory Redemption described above, Robert Knapp and Myma

Belo-Osagie, Directors of the Company now hold 3,263,346 and 27,008 Ordinary Shares, respectively. The redemption was funded through proceeds received from realising the assets of the Company.

Except as stated above, there are no other events after the reporting date which require amendments to and/or disclosure in these financial statements.

   19.       LIFE OF THE COMPANY 

The Company does not have a fixed life but, as stated in the Company's admission document published in 2007, the Directors consider it desirable that Shareholders should have the opportunity to review the future of the Company at appropriate intervals. Accordingly, Shareholders passed an ordinary resolution at an extraordinary general meeting of the Company on 28 February 2014 that the Company continues in existence.

In June 2019, the Directors convened an Annual General Meeting and an Extraordinary General Meeting where the following was passed:

Ordinary resolution that the requirement of the Company to propose the realisation opportunity be and is hereby waived.

-- Ordinary resolution that the continuation of the existence of the Company be and is hereby approved.

-- The text set out under "New Investing Policy" in paragraph 2 of Part III of the Company's circular to Shareholders dated 5 June 2019 (the "Circular") be and is hereby adopted as the new investment policy of the Company;

-- The terms of the Amended and Restated Investment Management Agreement (as defined in the Circular) be and are hereby approved;

-- The memorandum and the articles of association in the form initialled by the Chair of the meeting be adopted as the memorandum and articles of association of the Company in substitution for and to the exclusion of the existing memorandum and articles of association; and

-- Any variation to the rights attaching to the Ordinary Shares in the Company pursuant to the adoption of the new memorandum and articles of association, and in particular the right for the Company to redeem the Ordinary Shares (including any redemptions made of 15 per cent. or more of the Company's issued share capital), be and is hereby approved.

In June 2022, the Directors convened an Extraordinary General Meeting where a two year Continuation Resolution was approved by the Shareholders, thus extending the existence of the Company until 20 June 2024.

In summary, shareholders voted to give the Company two additional years during which the Investment Manager will realise the portfolio in an orderly manner and distribute the proceeds to the shareholders.

A brief synopsis of the "New Investing Policy" is below: (Please review the Company's Circular dated 5 June 2019 for a detailed and comprehensive description of the Policy):

The Company will make no new investments (save that it may invest in, or advance additional funds to, existing investments within the Company's portfolio to maximise value and assist in their eventual realisation). The Company will adopt the New Investment Policy whereby the Company's existing portfolio of investments will be divested in a controlled, orderly and timely manner to facilitate a staged return of capital.

It should be appreciated that there is no time horizon in terms of the implementation of the New Investment Policy. Although the Company's portfolio consists of some liquid equity holdings, the Company has illiquid investments and it may take the Investment Manager some time to realise these.

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END

IR BLGDCXBDDGDI

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September 29, 2022 02:00 ET (06:00 GMT)

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